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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(8), 1764; doi:10.3390/ijms18081764

Analysis of the Pathogenic Factors and Management of Dry Eye in Ocular Surface Disorders

Department of Sense Organs, Policlinico Umberto I, Sapienza University of Rome, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome, Italy
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Received: 20 May 2017 / Revised: 30 July 2017 / Accepted: 9 August 2017 / Published: 13 August 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dry Eye and Ocular Surface Disorders)
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Abstract

The tear film represents the interface between the eye and the environment. The alteration of the delicate balance that regulates the secretion and distribution of the tear film determines the dry eye (DE) syndrome. Despite having a multifactorial origin, the main risk factors are female gender and advanced age. Likewise, morphological changes in several glands and in the chemical composition of their secretions, such as proteins, mucins, lipidics, aqueous tears, and salinity, are highly relevant factors that maintain a steady ocular surface. Another key factor of recurrence and onset of the disease is the presence of local and/or systemic inflammation that involves the ocular surface. DE syndrome is one of the most commonly encountered diseases in clinical practice, and many other causes related to daily life and the increase in average life expectancy will contribute to its onset. This review will consider the disorders of the ocular surface that give rise to such a widespread pathology. At the end, the most recent therapeutic options for the management of DE will be briefly discussed according to the specific underlying pathology. View Full-Text
Keywords: dry eye; lacrimal gland; lipids and lipidomics; Meibomian gland; ocular surface disorders; proteins and proteomics; tear film dry eye; lacrimal gland; lipids and lipidomics; Meibomian gland; ocular surface disorders; proteins and proteomics; tear film
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Nebbioso, M.; Del Regno, P.; Gharbiya, M.; Sacchetti, M.; Plateroti, R.; Lambiase, A. Analysis of the Pathogenic Factors and Management of Dry Eye in Ocular Surface Disorders. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 1764.

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