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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(8), 1406; doi:10.3390/ijms18081406

Cellular Reparative Mechanisms of Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Retinal Diseases

1
Department of Biomedical Science, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
2
Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
3
Genetics and Regenerative Medicine Research Centre, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 April 2017 / Revised: 9 June 2017 / Accepted: 12 June 2017 / Published: 28 July 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Pathology, Diagnostics, and Therapeutics)
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Abstract

The use of multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has been reported as promising for the treatment of numerous degenerative disorders including the eye. In retinal degenerative diseases, MSCs exhibit the potential to regenerate into retinal neurons and retinal pigmented epithelial cells in both in vitro and in vivo studies. Delivery of MSCs was found to improve retinal morphology and function and delay retinal degeneration. In this review, we revisit the therapeutic role of MSCs in the diseased eye. Furthermore, we reveal the possible cellular mechanisms and identify the associated signaling pathways of MSCs in reversing the pathological conditions of various ocular disorders such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD), retinitis pigmentosa, diabetic retinopathy, and glaucoma. Current stem cell treatment can be dispensed as an independent cell treatment format or with the combination of other approaches. Hence, the improvement of the treatment strategy is largely subjected by our understanding of MSCs mechanism of action. View Full-Text
Keywords: mesenchymal stem cells; retinal degenerative diseases; MSC differentiation; paracrine activity; anti-inflammatory; immunomodulatory; anti-angiogenesis mesenchymal stem cells; retinal degenerative diseases; MSC differentiation; paracrine activity; anti-inflammatory; immunomodulatory; anti-angiogenesis
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Ding, S.L.S.; Kumar, S.; Mok, P.L. Cellular Reparative Mechanisms of Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Retinal Diseases. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 1406.

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