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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(6), 1196; doi:10.3390/ijms18061196

Peptidylarginine Deiminases—Roles in Cancer and Neurodegeneration and Possible Avenues for Therapeutic Intervention via Modulation of Exosome and Microvesicle (EMV) Release?

1
Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Westminster, 115, New Cavendish Street, London W1W 6UW, UK
2
School of Pharmacy, University College London, 29-39 Brunswick Square, London WC1N 1AX, UK
3
Cellular and Molecular Immunology Research Centre, School of Human Sciences, London Metropolitan University, 166-220 Holloway Road, London N7 8DB, UK
4
Molecular Biotechnology Center, Department of Medical Sciences, University of Turin, Corso Dogliotti 14, 10126 Turin, Italy
5
Institute for Women’s Health, University College London, 74 Huntley Street, London WC1N 6HX, UK
6
Reta Lila Weston Research Laboratories, Department of Molecular Neuroscience, UCL Institute of Neurology, London WC1N 3BG, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Thomas Ritter, Matthew Griffin and Aideen Ryan
Received: 31 May 2017 / Revised: 2 June 2017 / Accepted: 2 June 2017 / Published: 5 June 2017
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1697 KB, uploaded 5 June 2017]   |  

Abstract

Exosomes and microvesicles (EMVs) are lipid bilayer-enclosed structures released from cells and participate in cell-to-cell communication via transport of biological molecules. EMVs play important roles in various pathologies, including cancer and neurodegeneration. The regulation of EMV biogenesis is thus of great importance and novel ways for manipulating their release from cells have recently been highlighted. One of the pathways involved in EMV shedding is driven by peptidylarginine deiminase (PAD) mediated post-translational protein deimination, which is calcium-dependent and affects cytoskeletal rearrangement amongst other things. Increased PAD expression is observed in various cancers and neurodegeneration and may contribute to increased EMV shedding and disease progression. Here, we review the roles of PADs and EMVs in cancer and neurodegeneration. View Full-Text
Keywords: extracellular vesicles (EVs); microvesicles (MVs); exosomes; peptidylarginine deiminases (PADs); deimination; Chlor-amidine (Cl-Am); cancer; neurodegeneration; cytoskeleton; induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs); histone H3; epigenetics extracellular vesicles (EVs); microvesicles (MVs); exosomes; peptidylarginine deiminases (PADs); deimination; Chlor-amidine (Cl-Am); cancer; neurodegeneration; cytoskeleton; induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs); histone H3; epigenetics
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Lange, S.; Gallagher, M.; Kholia, S.; Kosgodage, U.S.; Hristova, M.; Hardy, J.; Inal, J.M. Peptidylarginine Deiminases—Roles in Cancer and Neurodegeneration and Possible Avenues for Therapeutic Intervention via Modulation of Exosome and Microvesicle (EMV) Release? Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 1196.

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