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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(6), 1285; doi:10.3390/ijms18061285

The Ability of Extracellular Vesicles to Induce a Pro-Inflammatory Host Response

1
Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam 1012 WP, The Netherlands
2
Department of Blood Cell Research, Sanquin Research and Landsteiner Laboratory, Amsterdam 1006 AD, The Netherlands
3
Laboratory of Experimental Clinical Chemistry, Vesicle Observation Centre, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam 1105 AZ, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 May 2017 / Revised: 12 June 2017 / Accepted: 13 June 2017 / Published: 16 June 2017
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Abstract

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) can modulate the host immune response, executing both pro- and anti-inflammatory effects. As EVs increasingly gain attention as potential carriers for targeted gene and drug delivery, knowledge on the effects of EVs on the host immune response is important. This review will focus on the ability of EVs to trigger a pro-inflammatory host response by activating target cells. The overall view is that EVs can augment an inflammatory response, thereby potentially contributing to organ injury. This pro-inflammatory potential of EVs may hamper its use for therapeutic drug delivery. Whether removal of EVs as a means to reduce a pro-inflammatory or pro-coagulant response during hyper-inflammatory conditions is beneficial remains to be determined. Prior to any proposed therapeutic application, there is a need for further studies on the role of EVs in physiology and pathophysiology using improved detection and characterization methods to elucidate the roles of EVs in inflammatory conditions. View Full-Text
Keywords: extracellular vesicles; inflammation; host response extracellular vesicles; inflammation; host response
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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van Hezel, M.E.; Nieuwland, R.; van Bruggen, R.; Juffermans, N.P. The Ability of Extracellular Vesicles to Induce a Pro-Inflammatory Host Response. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 1285.

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