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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(5), 965; doi:10.3390/ijms18050965

Aged Lymphatic Vessels and Mast Cells in Perilymphatic Tissues

Department of Medical Physiology, College of Medicine, Texas A&M University Health Science Center, Temple, TX 76504, USA
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Mónica De la Fuente
Received: 4 March 2017 / Revised: 9 April 2017 / Accepted: 26 April 2017 / Published: 3 May 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunology of Aging)
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Abstract

This review provides a comprehensive summary of research on aging-associated alterations in lymphatic vessels and mast cells in perilymphatic tissues. Aging alters structure (by increasing the size of zones with low muscle cell investiture), ultrastructure (through loss of the glycocalyx), and proteome composition with a concomitant increase in permeability of aged lymphatic vessels. The contractile function of aged lymphatic vessels is depleted with the abolished role of nitric oxide and an increased role of lymphatic-born histamine in flow-dependent regulation of lymphatic phasic contractions and tone. In addition, aging induces oxidative stress in lymphatic vessels and facilitates the spread of pathogens from these vessels into perilymphatic tissues. Aging causes the basal activation of perilymphatic mast cells, which, in turn, restricts recruitment/activation of immune cells in perilymphatic tissues. This aging-associated basal activation of mast cells limits proper functioning of the mast cell/histamine/NF-κB axis that is essential for the regulation of lymphatic vessel transport and barrier functions as well as for both the interaction and trafficking of immune cells near and within lymphatic collecting vessels. Cumulatively, these changes play important roles in the pathogenesis of alterations in inflammation and immunity associated with aging. View Full-Text
Keywords: aging; lymphatic vessel; mast cell; histamine; NF-κB signaling aging; lymphatic vessel; mast cell; histamine; NF-κB signaling
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Pal, S.; Meininger, C.J.; Gashev, A.A. Aged Lymphatic Vessels and Mast Cells in Perilymphatic Tissues. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 965.

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