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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(5), 933; doi:10.3390/ijms18050933

Fueling Inflamm-Aging through Mitochondrial Dysfunction: Mechanisms and Molecular Targets

1
Department of Geriatrics, Neuroscience and Orthopedics, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart School of Medicine, 00168 Rome, Italy
2
Department of Biosciences, Biotechnology and Biopharmaceutics, University of Bari, 70125 Bari, Italy
3
Department of Aging and Geriatric Research, Institute on Aging, Division of Biology of Aging, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Mónica De la Fuente
Received: 16 March 2017 / Revised: 14 April 2017 / Accepted: 25 April 2017 / Published: 28 April 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunology of Aging)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1588 KB, uploaded 28 April 2017]   |  

Abstract

Among the complex determinants of aging, mitochondrial dysfunction has been in the spotlight for a long time. As the hub for many cellular functions, the maintenance of an adequate pool of functional mitochondria is crucial for tissue homeostasis. Their unique role in energy supply makes these organelles essential, especially in those tissues strictly dependent on oxidative metabolism. Mitochondrial quality control (MQC) is ensured by pathways related to protein folding and degradation as well as by processes involving the entire organelle, such as biogenesis, dynamics, and mitophagy. Dysfunctional MQC, oxidative stress and inflammation are hallmarks of senescence and chronic degenerative diseases. One of the consequences of age-related failing MQC and oxidative stress is the release of mitochondria-derived damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). Through their bacterial ancestry, these molecules contribute to mounting an inflammatory response by interacting with receptors similar to those involved in pathogen-associated responses. Mitochondrial DAMPs, especially cell-free mitochondrial DNA, have recently become the subject of intensive research because of their possible involvement in conditions associated with inflammation, such as aging and degenerative diseases. Here, we review the contribution of mitochondrial DAMPs to inflammation and discuss some of the mechanisms at the basis of their generation. View Full-Text
Keywords: mitophagy; sterile inflammation; mitochondrial biogenesis; mitochondrial dynamics; TFAM; mitochondrial quality control (MQC); inflammasome; damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) mitophagy; sterile inflammation; mitochondrial biogenesis; mitochondrial dynamics; TFAM; mitochondrial quality control (MQC); inflammasome; damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs)
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Picca, A.; Lezza, A.M.S.; Leeuwenburgh, C.; Pesce, V.; Calvani, R.; Landi, F.; Bernabei, R.; Marzetti, E. Fueling Inflamm-Aging through Mitochondrial Dysfunction: Mechanisms and Molecular Targets. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 933.

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