Next Article in Journal
Selective Expression of Flt3 within the Mouse Hematopoietic Stem Cell Compartment
Next Article in Special Issue
[18F]-Fluorinated Carboplatin and [111In]-Liposome for Image-Guided Drug Delivery
Previous Article in Journal
Circulating Cell-Free DNA and Circulating Tumor Cells as Prognostic and Predictive Biomarkers in Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients Treated with First-Line Chemotherapy
Previous Article in Special Issue
Near Infrared Fluorescence Imaging in Nano-Therapeutics and Photo-Thermal Evaluation
Article Menu
Issue 5 (May) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(5), 1036; doi:10.3390/ijms18051036

Theranostic Probes for Targeting Tumor Microenvironment: An Overview

1
Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, Nanyang Technological University, 59 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 636921, Singapore
2
Centre for Pheromone Technology, Department of Animal Science, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli 620024, India
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Jamal Zweit and Sundaresan Gobalakrishnan
Received: 16 April 2017 / Revised: 6 May 2017 / Accepted: 8 May 2017 / Published: 11 May 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer Molecular Imaging in the Era of Precision Medicine)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1551 KB, uploaded 11 May 2017]   |  

Abstract

Long gone is the time when tumors were thought to be insular masses of cells, residing independently at specific sites in an organ. Now, researchers gradually realize that tumors interact with the extracellular matrix (ECM), blood vessels, connective tissues, and immune cells in their environment, which is now known as the tumor microenvironment (TME). It has been found that the interactions between tumors and their surrounds promote tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis. The dynamics and diversity of TME cause the tumors to be heterogeneous and thus pose a challenge for cancer diagnosis, drug design, and therapy. As TME is significant in enhancing tumor progression, it is vital to identify the different components in the TME such as tumor vasculature, ECM, stromal cells, and the lymphatic system. This review explores how these significant factors in the TME, supply tumors with the required growth factors and signaling molecules to proliferate, invade, and metastasize. We also examine the development of TME-targeted nanotheranostics over the recent years for cancer therapy, diagnosis, and anticancer drug delivery systems. This review further discusses the limitations and future perspective of nanoparticle based theranostics when used in combination with current imaging modalities like Optical Imaging, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Nuclear Imaging (Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and Single Photon Emission Computer Tomography (SPECT)). View Full-Text
Keywords: tumor microenvironment; nanoparticle; nanotheronostics; probe; imaging tumor microenvironment; nanoparticle; nanotheronostics; probe; imaging
Figures

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Sikkandhar, M.G.; Nedumaran, A.M.; Ravichandar, R.; Singh, S.; Santhakumar, I.; Goh, Z.C.; Mishra, S.; Archunan, G.; Gulyás, B.; Padmanabhan, P. Theranostic Probes for Targeting Tumor Microenvironment: An Overview. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 1036.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top