Next Article in Journal
Identification of Novel A2/C2 Inter-Genotype Recombinants of Hepatitis B Virus from a Korean Chronic Patient Co-Infected with Both Genotype A2 and C2
Next Article in Special Issue
Biofilm is a Major Virulence Determinant in Bacterial Colonization of Chronic Skin Ulcers Independently from the Multidrug Resistant Phenotype
Previous Article in Journal
Characteristic Variations and Similarities in Biochemical, Molecular, and Functional Properties of Glyoxalases across Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes
Previous Article in Special Issue
Differential Proteome Analysis of a Flor Yeast Strain under Biofilm Formation
Article Menu
Issue 4 (April) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(4), 713; doi:10.3390/ijms18040713

Effect of the Biofilm Age and Starvation on Acid Tolerance of Biofilm Formed by Streptococcus mutans Isolated from Caries-Active and Caries-Free Adults

1
Department of Endodontics and Operative Dentistry, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Fujian Medical University, 246 Yangqiao Zhong Road, Fuzhou 350002, China
2
Department of Endodontics, Comprehensive Dental Care, Faculty of Dentistry, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
3
Department of Endodontology, Tianjin Stomatological Hospital of Nankai University, 75 North Dagu Road, Heping District, Tianjin 300000, China
4
Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Fujian Medical University Union Hospital, Fuzhou 350001, China
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Martin Welch
Received: 18 February 2017 / Revised: 17 March 2017 / Accepted: 22 March 2017 / Published: 30 March 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biofilm Formation)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [5019 KB, uploaded 30 March 2017]   |  

Abstract

Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) is considered a leading cause of dental caries. The capability of S. mutans to tolerate low pH is essential for its cariogenicity. Aciduricity of S. mutans is linked to its adaptation to environmental stress in oral cavity. This study aimed to investigate the effect of biofilm age and starvation condition on acid tolerance of biofilm formed by S. mutans clinical isolates. S. mutans clinical strains isolated from caries-active (SM593) and caries-free (SM18) adults and a reference strain (ATCC25175) were used for biofilm formation. (1) Both young and mature biofilms were formed and then exposed to pH 3.0 for 30 min with (acid-adapted group) or without (non-adapted group) pre-exposure to pH 5.5 for three hours. (2) The mature biofilms were cultured with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) (starved group) or TPY (polypeptone-yeast extract) medium (non-starved group) at pH 7.0 for 24 h and then immersed in medium of pH 3.0 for 30 min. Biofilms were analyzed through viability staining and confocal laser scanning microscopy. In all three strains, mature, acid-adapted and starved biofilms showed significantly less destructive structure and more viable bacteria after acid shock than young, non-adapted and non-starved biofilms, respectively (all p < 0.05). Furthermore, in each condition, SM593 biofilm was denser, with a significantly larger number of viable bacteria than that of SM18 and ATCC25175 (all p < 0.05). Findings demonstrated that mature, acid-adapted and starvation might protect biofilms of all three S. mutans strains against acid shock. Additionally, SM593 exhibited greater aciduricity compared to SM18 and ATCC25175, which indicated that the colonization of high cariogenicity of clinical strains may lead to high caries risk in individuals. View Full-Text
Keywords: Streptococcus mutans; biofilm formation; aciduricity; Starvation; confocal laser scanning microscopy Streptococcus mutans; biofilm formation; aciduricity; Starvation; confocal laser scanning microscopy
Figures

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Jiang, S.; Chen, S.; Zhang, C.; Zhao, X.; Huang, X.; Cai, Z. Effect of the Biofilm Age and Starvation on Acid Tolerance of Biofilm Formed by Streptococcus mutans Isolated from Caries-Active and Caries-Free Adults. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 713.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top