Next Article in Journal
Hepatic Transcriptome Profiles of Mice with Diet-Induced Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis Treated with Astaxanthin and Vitamin E
Next Article in Special Issue
Role of RHEB in Regulating Differentiation Fate of Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Cartilage and Bone Regeneration
Previous Article in Journal
Elderberry and Elderflower Extracts, Phenolic Compounds, and Metabolites and Their Effect on Complement, RAW 264.7 Macrophages and Dendritic Cells
Previous Article in Special Issue
Trauma and Stem Cells: Biology and Potential Therapeutic Implications
Article Menu
Issue 3 (March) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 583; doi:10.3390/ijms18030583

A Pronounced Inflammatory Activity Characterizes the Early Fracture Healing Phase in Immunologically Restricted Patients

1
Department of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, Charité University Hospital, 10117 Berlin, Germany
2
German Rheumatism Research Center (DRFZ), 10117 Berlin, Germany
3
Department of Orthopedics, Jena University Hospital, Campus Eisenberg, 07607 Eisenberg, Germany
4
Endokrinologikum Berlin, 10117 Berlin, Germany
5
Berlin-Brandenburg Center for Regenerative Therapies (BCRT), 13353 Berlin, Germany
6
Julius Wolff Institute, Charité University Hospital, 13353 Berlin, Germany
7
Berlin-Brandenburg School for Regenerative Therapies (BSRT), 13353 Berlin, Germany
8
Department of Orthopedics, University Hospital Heidelberg, 69118 Heidelberg, Germany
9
Center for Musculoskeletal Surgery, Charité University Hospital, 10117 Berlin, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Cory J. Xian
Received: 5 December 2016 / Revised: 2 March 2017 / Accepted: 5 March 2017 / Published: 8 March 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Bone and Cartilage Research)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [4684 KB, uploaded 8 March 2017]   |  

Abstract

Immunologically restricted patients such as those with autoimmune diseases or malignancies often suffer from delayed or insufficient fracture healing. In human fracture hematomas and the surrounding bone marrow obtained from immunologically restricted patients, we analyzed the initial inflammatory phase on cellular and humoral level via flow cytometry and multiplex suspension array. Compared with controls, we demonstrated higher numbers of immune cells like monocytes/macrophages, natural killer T (NKT) cells, and activated T helper cells within the fracture hematomas and/or the surrounding bone marrow. Also, several pro-inflammatory cytokines such as Interleukin (IL)-6 and Tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), chemokines (e.g., Eotaxin and RANTES), pro-angiogenic factors (e.g., IL-8 and Macrophage migration inhibitory factor: MIF), and regulatory cytokines (e.g., IL-10) were found at higher levels within the fracture hematomas and/or the surrounding bone marrow of immunologically restricted patients when compared to controls. We conclude here that the inflammatory activity on cellular and humoral levels at fracture sites of immunologically restricted patients considerably exceeds that of control patients. The initial inflammatory phase profoundly differs between these patient groups and is probably one of the reasons for prolonged or insufficient fracture healing often occurring within immunologically restricted patients. View Full-Text
Keywords: immunologically restricted patients; fracture hematoma; inflammation; fracture healing; bone healing; cytokines; immune cells; chemokines immunologically restricted patients; fracture hematoma; inflammation; fracture healing; bone healing; cytokines; immune cells; chemokines
Figures

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Hoff, P.; Gaber, T.; Strehl, C.; Jakstadt, M.; Hoff, H.; Schmidt-Bleek, K.; Lang, A.; Röhner, E.; Huscher, D.; Matziolis, G.; Burmester, G.-R.; Schmidmaier, G.; Perka, C.; Duda, G.N.; Buttgereit, F. A Pronounced Inflammatory Activity Characterizes the Early Fracture Healing Phase in Immunologically Restricted Patients. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 583.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top