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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 584; doi:10.3390/ijms18030584

Elderberry and Elderflower Extracts, Phenolic Compounds, and Metabolites and Their Effect on Complement, RAW 264.7 Macrophages and Dendritic Cells

School of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1068, Blindern, N-0316 Oslo, Norway
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Paula Andrade and Patrícia Valentão
Received: 31 January 2017 / Revised: 27 February 2017 / Accepted: 4 March 2017 / Published: 8 March 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Anti-Inflammatory Agents)
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Abstract

Modulation of complement activity and inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) production by macrophages and dendritic cells may have therapeutic value in inflammatory diseases. Elderberry and elderflower extracts, constituents, and metabolites were investigated for their effects on the complement system, and on NO production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW 264.7 macrophages and murine dendritic D2SC/I cells. The EtOH crude extracts from elderberry and elderflower and the isolated anthocyanins and procyanidins possessed strong complement fixating activity and strong inhibitory activity on NO production in RAW cells and dendritic cells. Phenolic compounds in the range of 0.1–100 µM showed a dose-dependent inhibition of NO production, with quercetin, rutin, and kaempferol as the most potent ones. Among the metabolites, caffeic acid and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid showed the strongest inhibitory effects on NO production in both cell lines, without having cytotoxic effect. Only 4-methylcatechol was cytotoxic at the highest tested concentration (100 µM). Elderberry and elderflower constituents may possess inflammatory modulating activity, which increases their nutritional value. View Full-Text
Keywords: Sambucus nigra; elderberry; elderflower; complement system; nitric oxide; anti-inflammatory; metabolites; polyphenols; LPS; RAW 264.7 cells; dendritic D2SC/I cells Sambucus nigra; elderberry; elderflower; complement system; nitric oxide; anti-inflammatory; metabolites; polyphenols; LPS; RAW 264.7 cells; dendritic D2SC/I cells
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Ho, G.T.T.; Wangensteen, H.; Barsett, H. Elderberry and Elderflower Extracts, Phenolic Compounds, and Metabolites and Their Effect on Complement, RAW 264.7 Macrophages and Dendritic Cells. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 584.

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