Next Article in Journal
Probing Protein Glycation by Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry: Analysis of Glycation Adducts
Next Article in Special Issue
Adjuvant Biological Therapies in Chronic Leg Ulcers
Previous Article in Journal
Nodule-Enriched GRETCHEN HAGEN 3 Enzymes Have Distinct Substrate Specificities and Are Important for Proper Soybean Nodule Development
Previous Article in Special Issue
Paraneoplastic Pemphigus: Insight into the Autoimmune Pathogenesis, Clinical Features and Therapy
Article Menu
Issue 12 (December) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(12), 2548; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18122548

Human Skin Permeation Studies with PPARγ Agonist to Improve Its Permeability and Efficacy in Inflammatory Processes

1
Department of Pharmacy, Pharmaceutical Technology and Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy and Food Sciences, University of Barcelona, 08028 Barcelona, Spain
2
Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (IN2UB), University of Barcelona, 08028 Barcelona, Spain
3
Departamento de Química y Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja, Loja 1101608, Ecuador
4
Department of Biochemistry and Physiology, Faculty of Pharmacy and Food Sciences, University of Barcelona, 08028 Barcelona, Spain
5
Institut de Recerca en Nutrició i Seguretat Alimentària (INSA), Universitat de Barcelona (UB), 08028 Barcelona, Spain
6
Institute of Biomedicine, University of Barcelona, 08028 Barcelona, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 October 2017 / Revised: 17 November 2017 / Accepted: 21 November 2017 / Published: 28 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inflammatory Skin Conditions 2017)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2373 KB, uploaded 28 November 2017]   |  

Abstract

Rosacea is the most common inflammatory skin disease. It is characterized by erythema, inflammatory papules and pustules, visible blood vessels, and telangiectasia. The current treatment has limitations and unsatisfactory results. Pioglitazone (PGZ) is an agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), a nuclear receptor that regulates important cellular functions, including inflammatory responses. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the permeation of PGZ with a selection of penetration enhancers and to analyze its effectiveness for treating rosacea. The high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was validated for the quantitative determination of PGZ. Ex vivo permeation experiments were realized in Franz diffusion cells using human skin, in which PGZ with different penetration enhancers were assayed. The results showed that the limonene was the most effective penetration enhancer that promotes the permeation of PGZ through the skin. The cytotoxicity studies and the Draize test detected cell viability and the absence of skin irritation, respectively. The determination of the skin color using a skin colorimetric probe and the results of histopathological studies confirmed the ability of PGZ-limonene to reduce erythema and vasodilation. This study suggests new pharmacological indications of PGZ and its possible application in the treatment of skin diseases, namely rosacea. View Full-Text
Keywords: skin permeation; PPAR-γ; pioglitazone; limonene; rosacea; inflammation skin permeation; PPAR-γ; pioglitazone; limonene; rosacea; inflammation
Figures

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Silva-Abreu, M.; Espinoza, L.C.; Rodríguez-Lagunas, M.J.; Fábrega, M.-J.; Espina, M.; García, M.L.; Calpena, A.C. Human Skin Permeation Studies with PPARγ Agonist to Improve Its Permeability and Efficacy in Inflammatory Processes. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 2548.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top