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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(11), 2474; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18112474

Indole-3-Butyric Acid Induces Ectopic Formation of Metaxylem in the Hypocotyl of Arabidopsis thaliana without Conversion into Indole-3-Acetic Acid and with a Positive Interaction with Ethylene

Dipartimento di Biologia Ambientale, Sapienza Università di Roma, 00185 Rome, Italy
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Received: 27 October 2017 / Revised: 13 November 2017 / Accepted: 16 November 2017 / Published: 21 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Auxin)
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Abstract

The role of the auxins indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) and of the auxin-interacting phytohormone ethylene, on the ectopic formation of primary xylem (xylogenesis in planta) is still little known. In particular, auxin/ethylene-target tissue(s), modality of the xylary process (trans-differentiation vs. de novo formation), and the kind of ectopic elements formed (metaxylem vs. protoxylem) are currently unknown. It is also unclear whether IBA may act on the process independently of conversion into IAA. To investigate these topics, histological analyses were carried out in the hypocotyls of Arabidopsis wild type seedlings and ech2ibr10 and ein3eil1 mutants, which are blocked in IBA-to-IAA conversion and ethylene signalling, respectively. The seedlings were grown under darkness with either IAA or IBA, combined or not with the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid. Adventitious root formation was also investigated because this process may compete with xylogenesis. Our results show that ectopic formation of protoxylem and metaxylem occurred as an indirect process starting from the pericycle periclinal derivatives of the hypocotyl basal part. IAA favoured protoxylem formation, whereas IBA induced ectopic metaxylem with ethylene cooperation through the EIN3EIL1 network. Ectopic metaxylem differentiation occurred independently of IBA-to-IAA conversion as mediated by ECH2 and IBR10, and in the place of IBA-induced adventitious root formation. View Full-Text
Keywords: adventitious root formation; ethylene; hypocotyl pericycle; hypocotyl vascular system; indole-3-acetic acid; indole-3-butyric acid; metaxylem; protoxylem; xylogenesis in planta adventitious root formation; ethylene; hypocotyl pericycle; hypocotyl vascular system; indole-3-acetic acid; indole-3-butyric acid; metaxylem; protoxylem; xylogenesis in planta
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Fattorini, L.; Della Rovere, F.; Andreini, E.; Ronzan, M.; Falasca, G.; Altamura, M.M. Indole-3-Butyric Acid Induces Ectopic Formation of Metaxylem in the Hypocotyl of Arabidopsis thaliana without Conversion into Indole-3-Acetic Acid and with a Positive Interaction with Ethylene. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 2474.

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