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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(11), 2366; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18112366

In Vivo Imaging of Microglial Calcium Signaling in Brain Inflammation and Injury

1
Department of Neurosurgery, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT 84132, USA
2
Department of Neurosurgery, University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville, VA 22908, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 September 2017 / Revised: 1 November 2017 / Accepted: 4 November 2017 / Published: 8 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microglia in Aging and Neurodegenerative Disease)
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Abstract

Microglia, the innate immune sentinels of the central nervous system, are the most dynamic cells in the brain parenchyma. They are the first responders to insult and mediate neuroinflammation. Following cellular damage, microglia extend their processes towards the lesion, modify their morphology, release cytokines and other mediators, and eventually migrate towards the damaged area and remove cellular debris by phagocytosis. Intracellular Ca2+ signaling plays important roles in many of these functions. However, Ca2+ in microglia has not been systematically studied in vivo. Here we review recent findings using genetically encoded Ca2+ indicators and two-photon imaging, which have enabled new insights into Ca2+ dynamics and signaling pathways in large populations of microglia in vivo. These new approaches will help to evaluate pre-clinical interventions and immunomodulation for pathological brain conditions such as stroke and neurodegenerative diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: microglia; calcium signaling; in vivo imaging; two-photon; GECI; PC::G5-tdT; inflammation; Alzheimer’s disease; ischemic stroke microglia; calcium signaling; in vivo imaging; two-photon; GECI; PC::G5-tdT; inflammation; Alzheimer’s disease; ischemic stroke
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Tvrdik, P.; Kalani, M.Y.S. In Vivo Imaging of Microglial Calcium Signaling in Brain Inflammation and Injury. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 2366.

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