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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(11), 2321; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18112321

Recent Advances in Comprehending the Signaling Pathways Involved in the Progression of Breast Cancer

1
Department of Oncology, Transplantations and New Technologies in Medicine, University of Pisa, 56126 Pisa, Italy
2
Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa, 56126 Pisa, Italy
Retired.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 August 2017 / Revised: 30 October 2017 / Accepted: 31 October 2017 / Published: 3 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alterations to Signalling Pathways in Cancer Cells)
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Abstract

This review describes recent advances in the comprehension of signaling pathways involved in breast cancer progression. Calcium sensing receptor (CaSR), caveolae signaling, signaling referred to hypoxia-inducing factors and disturbances in the apoptotic machinery are related to more general biological mechanisms and are considered first. The others refer to signaling pathways of more specific biological mechanisms, namely the heparin/heparin-sulfate interactome, over-expression of miRNA-378a-5p, restriction of luminal and basal epithelial cells, fatty-acid synthesis, molecular pathways related to epithelial to mesenchimal transition (EMT), HER-2/neu gene amplification and protein expression, and the expression of other members of the epithelial growth factor receptor family. This progress in basic research is fundamental to foster the ongoing efforts that use the new genotyping technologies, and aim at defining new prognostic and predictive biomarkers for a better personalized management of breast cancer disease. View Full-Text
Keywords: breast cancer; cancer progression; signaling pathways; personalized medicine; calcium sensing receptor; caveolae; hypoxia inducing factors breast cancer; cancer progression; signaling pathways; personalized medicine; calcium sensing receptor; caveolae; hypoxia inducing factors
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Nicolini, A.; Ferrari, P.; Diodati, L.; Carpi, A. Recent Advances in Comprehending the Signaling Pathways Involved in the Progression of Breast Cancer. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 2321.

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