Next Article in Journal
Low Temperature Extends the Lifespan of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus through the cGMP Pathway
Previous Article in Journal
Effect of Saturated Stearic Acid on MAP Kinase and ER Stress Signaling Pathways during Apoptosis Induction in Human Pancreatic β-Cells Is Inhibited by Unsaturated Oleic Acid
Article Menu
Issue 11 (November) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(11), 2314; doi:10.3390/ijms18112314

Eburicoic Acid, a Triterpenoid Compound from Antrodia camphorata, Displays Antidiabetic and Antihyperlipidemic Effects in Palmitate-Treated C2C12 Myotubes and in High-Fat Diet-Fed Mice

1
Department of Internal Medicine, Fengyuan Hospital, Ministry of Health and Welfare, Fengyuan District, Taichung City 42055, Taiwan
2
Department of Chinese Pharmaceutical Sciences and Chinese Medicine Resources, China Medical University, Taichung City 40402, Taiwan
3
Department of Biotechnology, Asia University, Taichung 41354, Taiwan
4
Graduate Institute of Biotechnology and Biomedical Engineering, College of Health Science, Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology, No.666 Buzih Road, Beitun District, Taichung City 40601, Taiwan
These authors equally contributed to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: David Arráez-Román
Received: 4 October 2017 / Revised: 26 October 2017 / Accepted: 28 October 2017 / Published: 2 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Bioactives and Nutraceuticals)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [8365 KB, uploaded 3 November 2017]   |  

Abstract

This study was designed to investigate the antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic effects and mechanisms of eburicoic acid (TRR); one component of Antrodia camphorata in vitro and in an animal model for 14 weeks. Expression levels of membrane glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4); phospho-5′-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK)/total AMPK; and phospho-Akt/total-Akt in insulin-resistant C2C12 myotube cells were significantly decreased by palmitate; and such decrease was prevented and restored by TRR at different concentrations. A group of control (CON) was on low-fat diet over a period of 14 weeks. Diabetic mice; after high-fat-diet (HFD) induction for 10 weeks; were randomly divided into six groups and were given once a day oral gavage doses of either TRR (at three dosage levels); fenofibrate (Feno) (at 0.25 g/kg body weight); metformin (Metf) (at 0.3 g/kg body weight); or vehicle (distilled water) (HF group) over a period of 4 weeks and still on HFD. Levels of glucose; triglyceride; free fatty acid (FFA); insulin; and leptin in blood were increased in 14-week HFD-fed mice as compared to the CON group; and the increases were prevented by TRR, Feno, or Metf as compared to the HF group. Moreover, HFD-induction displayed a decrease in circulating adiponectin levels, and the decrease was prevented by TRR, Feno, or Metf treatment. The overall effect of TRR is to decrease glucose and triglyceride levels and improved peripheral insulin sensitivity. Eburicoic acid, Feno, and Metf displayed both enhanced expression levels of phospho-AMPK and membrane expression levels of GLUT4 in the skeletal muscle of HFD-fed mice to facilitate glucose uptake with consequent enhanced hepatic expression levels of phospho-AMPK in the liver and phosphorylation of the transcription factor forkhead box protein O1 (FOXO1) but decreased messenger RNA (mRNA) of phosphenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) to inhibit hepatic glucose production; resulting in lowered blood glucose levels. Moreover; TRR treatment increased hepatic expression levels of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) to enhance fatty acid oxidation; but displayed a reduction in expressions of hepatic fatty acid synthase (FAS) but an increase in fatty acid oxidation PPARα coincident with a decrease in hepatic mRNA levels of sterol response element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c); resulting in a decrease in blood triglycerides and amelioration of hepatic ballooning degeneration. Eburicoic acid-treated mice reduced adipose expression levels of lipogenic FAS and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and led to decreased adipose lipid accumulation. The present findings demonstrated that TRR exhibits a beneficial therapeutic potential in the treatment of type 2 diabetes and hyperlipidemia. View Full-Text
Keywords: Antrodia camphorata; eburicoic acid; diabetes; forkhead box protein O1; fatty acid synthase; peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α Antrodia camphorata; eburicoic acid; diabetes; forkhead box protein O1; fatty acid synthase; peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Lin, C.-H.; Kuo, Y.-H.; Shih, C.-C. Eburicoic Acid, a Triterpenoid Compound from Antrodia camphorata, Displays Antidiabetic and Antihyperlipidemic Effects in Palmitate-Treated C2C12 Myotubes and in High-Fat Diet-Fed Mice. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 2314.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top