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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(11), 2274; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18112274

Evolutionary Conserved Cysteines Function as cis-Acting Regulators of Arabidopsis PIN-FORMED 2 Distribution

1
Department of Applied Genetics and Cell Biology, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna (BOKU), Muthgasse 18, 1190 Wien, Austria
2
Institute of Experimental Botany of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Rozvojová 263, 165 02 Praha 6, Czech Republic
3
Department of Experimental Plant Biology, Faculty of Science, Charles University, Vinicna 5, 128 44 Prague 2, Czech Republic
4
School of Life Sciences, University of Warwick, Gibbet Hill Road, Coventry CV4 7AL, UK
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 September 2017 / Revised: 25 October 2017 / Accepted: 26 October 2017 / Published: 29 October 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Auxin)
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Abstract

Coordination of plant development requires modulation of growth responses that are under control of the phytohormone auxin. PIN-FORMED plasma membrane proteins, involved in intercellular transport of the growth regulator, are key to the transmission of such auxin signals and subject to multilevel surveillance mechanisms, including reversible post-translational modifications. Apart from well-studied PIN protein modifications, namely phosphorylation and ubiquitylation, no further post-translational modifications have been described so far. Here, we focused on root-specific Arabidopsis PIN2 and explored functional implications of two evolutionary conserved cysteines, by a combination of in silico and molecular approaches. PIN2 sequence alignments and modeling predictions indicated that both cysteines are facing the cytoplasm and therefore would be accessible to redox status-controlled modifications. Notably, mutant pin2C−A alleles retained functionality, demonstrated by their ability to almost completely rescue defects of a pin2 null allele, whereas high resolution analysis of pin2C−A localization revealed increased intracellular accumulation, and altered protein distribution within plasma membrane micro-domains. The observed effects of cysteine replacements on root growth and PIN2 localization are consistent with a model in which redox status-dependent cysteine modifications participate in the regulation of PIN2 mobility, thereby fine-tuning polar auxin transport. View Full-Text
Keywords: Auxin; PIN proteins; plasma membrane protein sorting; protein mobility; intracellular distribution; root phenotype; Arabidopsis; protein modeling; SRRF Auxin; PIN proteins; plasma membrane protein sorting; protein mobility; intracellular distribution; root phenotype; Arabidopsis; protein modeling; SRRF
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Retzer, K.; Lacek, J.; Skokan, R.; del Genio, C.I.; Vosolsobě, S.; Laňková, M.; Malínská, K.; Konstantinova, N.; Zažímalová, E.; Napier, R.M.; Petrášek, J.; Luschnig, C. Evolutionary Conserved Cysteines Function as cis-Acting Regulators of Arabidopsis PIN-FORMED 2 Distribution. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 2274.

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