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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(10), 2050; doi:10.3390/ijms18102050

Molecular Mechanisms and Pathways as Targets for Cancer Prevention and Progression with Dietary Compounds

1
Department of Plant Agriculture, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada
2
Department of Human Health and Nutritional Sciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 August 2017 / Revised: 7 September 2017 / Accepted: 18 September 2017 / Published: 25 September 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutraceuticals in Human Health and Disease)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [841 KB, uploaded 25 September 2017]   |  

Abstract

A unique feature of bioactive food ingredients is their broad antioxidant function. Antioxidants having a wide spectrum of chemical structure and activity beyond basic nutrition; display different health benefits by the prevention and progression of chronic diseases. Functional food components are capable of enhancing the natural antioxidant defense system by scavenging reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, protecting and repairing DNA damage, as well as modulating the signal transduction pathways and gene expression. Major pathways affected by bioactive food ingredients include the pro-inflammatory pathways regulated by nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), as well as those associated with cytokines and chemokines. The present review summarizes the importance of plant bioactives and their roles in the regulation of inflammatory pathways. Bioactives influence several physiological processes such as gene expression, cell cycle regulation, cell proliferation, cell migration, etc., resulting in cancer prevention. Cancer initiation is associated with changes in metabolic pathways such as glucose metabolism, and the effect of bioactives in normalizing this process has been provided. Initiation and progression of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) which increase the chances of developing of colorectal cancers can be downregulated by plant bioactives. Several aspects of the potential roles of microRNAs and epigenetic modifications in the development of cancers have also been presented. View Full-Text
Keywords: bioactive food ingredients; inflammatory pathways; cancer; antioxidants; inflammation; cell cycle; cell migration; epigenetic modifications; microRNA; inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) bioactive food ingredients; inflammatory pathways; cancer; antioxidants; inflammation; cell cycle; cell migration; epigenetic modifications; microRNA; inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD)
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Nosrati, N.; Bakovic, M.; Paliyath, G. Molecular Mechanisms and Pathways as Targets for Cancer Prevention and Progression with Dietary Compounds. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 2050.

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