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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(10), 2052; doi:10.3390/ijms18102052

Anti-Photoaging Effect of Jeju Putgyul (Unripe Citrus) Extracts on Human Dermal Fibroblasts and Ultraviolet B-induced Hairless Mouse Skin

1
Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 24341, Korea
2
Institute of Traditional Medicine and Bioscience, Daejeon University, Daejeon 34520, Korea
3
Jeju Biodiversity Research Institute (JBRI), Jeju Technopark (JTP), Jeju 63608, Korea
4
Hurum Central Research Institute, Seogwipo 63608, Korea
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 August 2017 / Revised: 14 September 2017 / Accepted: 22 September 2017 / Published: 25 September 2017
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Abstract

Ultraviolet (UV) radiation stimulates the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and inflammatory cytokines. These signaling pathways participate in the degradation of the extracellular matrix and induce inflammatory responses that lead to photoaging. This study evaluated the antioxidant activity and the effect on MMPs and procollagen of putgyul extract in vitro. The anti-photoaging activity of putgyul extracts was estimated in vivo using hairless mice (HR-1). The putgyul extracts reduced MMP-1 production and increased the content of procollagen type I carboxy-terminal peptide in human dermal fibroblasts. Ultravilot-B (UVB)-induced expression of inflammatory cytokines and MMPs was detected in mice, and putgyul extracts suppressed the expression. These results suggest that putgyul extract inhibits photoaging by inhibiting the expression of MMPs that degrade collagen and inhibiting cytokines that induce inflammatory responses. The mouse model also demonstrated that oral administration of putgyul extracts decreased wrinkle depth, epidermal thickness, collagen degradation, and trans-epidermal water loss, and increased β-glucosidase activity on UVB exposed skin. Putgyul extract protects against UVB-induced damage of skin and could be valuable in the prevention of photoaging. View Full-Text
Keywords: Citrus unshiu S.Marcov; human dermal fibroblasts; hairless mice; anti-photoaging; matrix metalloproteinase Citrus unshiu S.Marcov; human dermal fibroblasts; hairless mice; anti-photoaging; matrix metalloproteinase
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Choi, S.-H.; Choi, S.-I.; Jung, T.-D.; Cho, B.-Y.; Lee, J.-H.; Kim, S.-H.; Yoon, S.-A.; Ham, Y.-M.; Yoon, W.-J.; Cho, J.-H.; Lee, O.-H. Anti-Photoaging Effect of Jeju Putgyul (Unripe Citrus) Extracts on Human Dermal Fibroblasts and Ultraviolet B-induced Hairless Mouse Skin. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 2052.

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