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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(1), 95; doi:10.3390/ijms18010095

Sailuotong Prevents Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2)-Induced Injury in EA.hy926 Cells

1
National Institute of Complementary Medicine (NICM), Western Sydney University, Penrith, NSW 2571, Australia
2
Faculty of Medicine, University of New South Wales, NSW 2052, Australia
3
School of Medicine, Western Sydney University, Locked Bag 1797, Penrith, NSW 2751, Australia
4
Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Macquarie University, NSW 2109, Australia
5
State Key Laboratory Research in Chinese Medicine and Institute of Chinese Medical Sciences, University of Macau, Macao, China
6
Xiyuan Hospital, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing 100091, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Leticia M. Estevinho
Received: 13 October 2016 / Revised: 15 December 2016 / Accepted: 22 December 2016 / Published: 5 January 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutraceuticals in Human Health and Disease)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1683 KB, uploaded 5 January 2017]   |  

Abstract

Sailuotong (SLT) is a standardised three-herb formulation consisting of Panax ginseng, Ginkgo biloba, and Crocus sativus designed for the management of vascular dementia. While the latest clinical trials have demonstrated beneficial effects of SLT in vascular dementia, the underlying cellular mechanisms have not been fully explored. The aim of this study was to assess the ability and mechanisms of SLT to act against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative damage in cultured human vascular endothelial cells (EAhy926). SLT (1–50 µg/mL) significantly suppressed the H2O2-induced cell death and abolished the H2O2-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in a concentration-dependent manner. Similarly, H2O2 (0.5 mM; 24 h) caused a ~2-fold increase in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release from the EA.hy926 cells which were significantly suppressed by SLT (1–50 µg/mL) in a concentration-dependent manner. Incubation of SLT (50 µg/mL) increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and suppressed the H2O2-enhanced Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and cleaved caspase-3 expression. In conclusion, our results suggest that SLT protects EA.hy916 cells against H2O2-mediated injury via direct reduction of intracellular ROS generation and an increase in SOD activity. These protective effects are closely associated with the inhibition of the apoptotic death cascade via the suppression of caspase-3 activation and reduction of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, thereby indicating a potential mechanism of action for the clinical effects observed. View Full-Text
Keywords: reactive oxygen species; Sailuotong (SLT); herbal medicine; apoptosis; endothelial dysfunction; vascular dementia reactive oxygen species; Sailuotong (SLT); herbal medicine; apoptosis; endothelial dysfunction; vascular dementia
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MDPI and ACS Style

Seto, S.W.; Chang, D.; Ko, W.M.; Zhou, X.; Kiat, H.; Bensoussan, A.; Lee, S.M.Y.; Hoi, M.P.M.; Steiner, G.Z.; Liu, J. Sailuotong Prevents Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2)-Induced Injury in EA.hy926 Cells. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 95.

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