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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(1), 41; doi:10.3390/ijms18010041

Osteogenic Differentiation in Healthy and Pathological Conditions

1
Department of Medicine, Section of Internal Medicine D, University of Verona, 37128 Verona, Italy
2
Department of Neurosciences, Biomedicine and Movement Sciences, Section of Biology and Genetics, University of Verona, 37134 Verona, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Cory J. Xian
Received: 14 October 2016 / Revised: 13 December 2016 / Accepted: 22 December 2016 / Published: 27 December 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Bone and Cartilage Research)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1006 KB, uploaded 27 December 2016]   |  

Abstract

This review focuses on the osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), bone formation and turn-over in good and ill skeletal fates. The interacting molecular pathways which control bone remodeling in physiological conditions during a lifelong process are described. Then, alterations of the molecular pathways regulating osteogenesis are addressed. In the aging process, as well as in glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis, bone loss is caused not only by an unbalanced bone resorption activity, but also by an impairment of MSCs’ commitment towards the osteogenic lineage, in favour of adipogenesis. Mutations affecting the expression of key genes involved in the control of bone development occur in several heritable bone disorders. A few examples are described in order to illustrate the pathological consequences of perturbation in different steps of osteogenic commitment, osteoblast maturation, and matrix mineralization, respectively. The involvement of abnormal MSC differentiation in cancer is then discussed. Finally, a brief overview of clinical applications of MSCs in bone regeneration and repair is presented. View Full-Text
Keywords: bone; osteoblasts; mesenchymal stem cells; remodeling; Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2); Wingless-Type MMTV Integration Site Family (WNT); Pigment Epithelium Derived Factor (PEDF); microRNAs; osteopenia bone; osteoblasts; mesenchymal stem cells; remodeling; Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2); Wingless-Type MMTV Integration Site Family (WNT); Pigment Epithelium Derived Factor (PEDF); microRNAs; osteopenia
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Valenti, M.T.; Dalle Carbonare, L.; Mottes, M. Osteogenic Differentiation in Healthy and Pathological Conditions. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 41.

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