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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(3), 351; doi:10.3390/ijms17030351

Chemical Conditioning as an Approach to Ischemic Stroke Tolerance: Mitochondria as the Target

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, UNT System College of Pharmacy, University of North Texas Health Science Center, Fort Worth, TX 76107, USA
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Cesar Borlongan
Received: 11 February 2016 / Revised: 26 February 2016 / Accepted: 4 March 2016 / Published: 8 March 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuroprotective Strategies 2016)
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Abstract

It is well established that the brain can be prepared to resist or tolerate ischemic stroke injury, and mitochondrion is a major target for this tolerance. The preparation of ischemic stroke tolerance can be achieved by three major approaches: ischemic conditioning, hypoxic conditioning and chemical conditioning. In each conditioning approach, there are often two strategies that can be used to achieve the conditioning effects, namely preconditioning (Pre-C) and postconditioning (Post-C). In this review, we focus on chemical conditioning of mitochondrial proteins as targets for neuroprotection against ischemic stroke injury. Mitochondrial targets covered include complexes I, II, IV, the ATP-sensitive potassium channel (mitoKATP), adenine dinucleotide translocase (ANT) and the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP). While numerous mitochondrial proteins have not been evaluated in the context of chemical conditioning and ischemic stroke tolerance, the paradigms and approaches reviewed in this article should provide general guidelines on testing those mitochondrial components that have not been investigated. A deep understanding of mitochondria as the target of chemical conditioning for ischemic stroke tolerance should provide valuable insights into strategies for fighting ischemic stroke, a leading cause of death in the world. View Full-Text
Keywords: chemical conditioning; ischemic conditioning; hypoxic conditioning; mitochondria; neuroprotection; stroke injury chemical conditioning; ischemic conditioning; hypoxic conditioning; mitochondria; neuroprotection; stroke injury
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Jin, Z.; Wu, J.; Yan, L.-J. Chemical Conditioning as an Approach to Ischemic Stroke Tolerance: Mitochondria as the Target. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 351.

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