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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(3), 365; doi:10.3390/ijms17030365

Geranylgeraniol and Neurological Impairment: Involvement of Apoptosis and Mitochondrial Morphology

1
Piazzale Europa 1, University of Trieste, Trieste 34127, Italy
2
Institute for Maternal and Child Health—IRCCS “Burlo Garofolo”, Via dell’Istria, 65/1, Trieste 34137, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Katalin Prokai-Tatrai
Received: 30 December 2015 / Revised: 2 March 2016 / Accepted: 3 March 2016 / Published: 11 March 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuroprotective Strategies 2016)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [939 KB, uploaded 11 March 2016]   |  

Abstract

Deregulation of the cholesterol pathway is an anomaly observed in human diseases, many of which have in common neurological involvement and unknown pathogenesis. In this study we have used Mevalonate Kinase Deficiency (MKD) as a disease-model in order to investigate the link between the deregulation of the mevalonate pathway and the consequent neurodegeneration. The blocking of the mevalonate pathway in a neuronal cell line (Daoy), using statins or mevalonate, induced an increase in the expression of the inflammasome gene (NLRP3) and programmed cell death related to mitochondrial dysfunction. The morphology of the mitochondria changed, clearly showing the damage induced by oxidative stress and the decreased membrane potential associated with the alterations of the mitochondrial function. The co-administration of geranylgeraniol (GGOH) reduced the inflammatory marker and the damage of the mitochondria, maintaining its shape and components. Our data allow us to speculate about the mechanism by which isoprenoids are able to rescue the inflammatory marker in neuronal cells, independently from the block of the mevalonate pathway, and about the fact that cell death is mitochondria-related. View Full-Text
Keywords: cholesterol pathway; apoptosis; neuroinflammation; mevalonate; mitochondria; neuronal death cholesterol pathway; apoptosis; neuroinflammation; mevalonate; mitochondria; neuronal death
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Marcuzzi, A.; Piscianz, E.; Zweyer, M.; Bortul, R.; Loganes, C.; Girardelli, M.; Baj, G.; Monasta, L.; Celeghini, C. Geranylgeraniol and Neurological Impairment: Involvement of Apoptosis and Mitochondrial Morphology. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 365.

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