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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(9), 22094-22136; doi:10.3390/ijms160922094

Drug Carrier for Photodynamic Cancer Therapy

1
Graduate Institute of Applied Science and Technology, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, 106 Taipei, Taiwan
2
Department of Chemical Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, 300 Hsinchu, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Michael R. Hamblin and Ying-ying Huang
Received: 30 July 2015 / Revised: 17 August 2015 / Accepted: 20 August 2015 / Published: 14 September 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Photodynamic Therapy)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [922 KB, uploaded 14 September 2015]   |  

Abstract

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a non-invasive combinatorial therapeutic modality using light, photosensitizer (PS), and oxygen used for the treatment of cancer and other diseases. When PSs in cells are exposed to specific wavelengths of light, they are transformed from the singlet ground state (S0) to an excited singlet state (S1–Sn), followed by intersystem crossing to an excited triplet state (T1). The energy transferred from T1 to biological substrates and molecular oxygen, via type I and II reactions, generates reactive oxygen species, (1O2, H2O2, O2*, HO*), which causes cellular damage that leads to tumor cell death through necrosis or apoptosis. The solubility, selectivity, and targeting of photosensitizers are important factors that must be considered in PDT. Nano-formulating PSs with organic and inorganic nanoparticles poses as potential strategy to satisfy the requirements of an ideal PDT system. In this review, we summarize several organic and inorganic PS carriers that have been studied to enhance the efficacy of photodynamic therapy against cancer. View Full-Text
Keywords: photodynamic therapy; photosensitizers; cancer cells; nanoparticles; biodegradable; organic nanocarrier; inorganic nanocarrier photodynamic therapy; photosensitizers; cancer cells; nanoparticles; biodegradable; organic nanocarrier; inorganic nanocarrier
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Debele, T.A.; Peng, S.; Tsai, H.-C. Drug Carrier for Photodynamic Cancer Therapy. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 22094-22136.

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