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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(9), 22415-22424; doi:10.3390/ijms160922415

The Effect of Coatings on the Affinity of Lanthanide Nanoparticles to MKN45 and HeLa Cancer Cells and Improvement in Photodynamic Therapy Efficiency

1
Department of Life Science, Graduate School of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Tokyo Institute of Technology, J2-10, 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8501, Japan
2
Division of Digestive Surgery, Department of Surgery, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, 465 Kajii-cho, Kawaramachihirokoji, Kamigyo-ku, Kyoto 602-8566, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Ying-ying Huang
Received: 9 July 2015 / Revised: 10 September 2015 / Accepted: 10 September 2015 / Published: 16 September 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Photodynamic Therapy)
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Abstract

An improvement in photodynamic therapy (PDT) efficiency against a human gastric cancer cell line (MKN45) with 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and lanthanide nanoparticles (LNPs) is described. An endogenous photosensitizer, protoporphyrin IX, biosynthesized from ALA and selectively accumulated in cancer cells, is sensitizable by the visible lights emitted from up-conversion LNPs, which can be excited by a near-infrared light. Ten kinds of surface modifications were performed on LNPs, NaYF4(Sc/Yb/Er) and NaYF4(Yb/Tm), in an aim to distribute these irradiation light sources near cancer cells. Among these LNPs, only the amino-functionalized LNPs showed affinity to MKN45 and HeLa cancer cells. A PDT assay with MKN45 demonstrated that amino-modified NaYF4(Sc/Yb/Er) gave rise to a dramatically enhanced PDT effect, reaching almost perfect lethality, whereas NaYF4(Yb/Tm)-based systems caused little improvement in PDT efficiency. The improvement of PDT effect with the amino-modified NaYF4(Sc/Yb/Er) is promising for a practical PDT against deep cancer cells that are reachable only by near-infrared lights. View Full-Text
Keywords: lanthanide nanoparticle; ALA; near-infrared; up-conversion luminescence lanthanide nanoparticle; ALA; near-infrared; up-conversion luminescence
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Sawamura, T.; Tanaka, T.; Ishige, H.; Iizuka, M.; Murayama, Y.; Otsuji, E.; Ohkubo, A.; Ogura, S.-I.; Yuasa, H. The Effect of Coatings on the Affinity of Lanthanide Nanoparticles to MKN45 and HeLa Cancer Cells and Improvement in Photodynamic Therapy Efficiency. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 22415-22424.

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