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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(8), 17909-17932; doi:10.3390/ijms160817909

Membrane Affinity of Platensimycin and Its Dialkylamine Analogs

1
Department of Biology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA
2
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA
3
Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics Graduate Group, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
4
Maryland Biophysics Program, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Bernhard Schuster
Received: 1 July 2015 / Revised: 22 July 2015 / Accepted: 24 July 2015 / Published: 4 August 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Membrane Protein Based Biosensors)
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Abstract

Membrane permeability is a desired property in drug design, but there have been difficulties in quantifying the direct drug partitioning into native membranes. Platensimycin (PL) is a new promising antibiotic whose biosynthetic production is costly. Six dialkylamine analogs of PL were synthesized with identical pharmacophores but different side chains; five of them were found inactive. To address the possibility that their activity is limited by the permeation step, we calculated polarity, measured surface activity and the ability to insert into the phospholipid monolayers. The partitioning of PL and the analogs into the cytoplasmic membrane of E. coli was assessed by activation curve shifts of a re-engineered mechanosensitive channel, MscS, in patch-clamp experiments. Despite predicted differences in polarity, the affinities to lipid monolayers and native membranes were comparable for most of the analogs. For PL and the di-myrtenyl analog QD-11, both carrying bulky sidechains, the affinity for the native membrane was lower than for monolayers (half-membranes), signifying that intercalation must overcome the lateral pressure of the bilayer. We conclude that the biological activity among the studied PL analogs is unlikely to be limited by their membrane permeability. We also discuss the capacity of endogenous tension-activated channels to detect asymmetric partitioning of exogenous substances into the native bacterial membrane and the different contributions to the thermodynamic force which drives permeation. View Full-Text
Keywords: membrane permeability; drug insertion; hydrophobicity; amphipathicity; monolayers; lateral pressure; mechanosensitive channel membrane permeability; drug insertion; hydrophobicity; amphipathicity; monolayers; lateral pressure; mechanosensitive channel
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Rowe, I.; Guo, M.; Yasmann, A.; Cember, A.; Sintim, H.O.; Sukharev, S. Membrane Affinity of Platensimycin and Its Dialkylamine Analogs. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 17909-17932.

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