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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(9), 21626-21642; doi:10.3390/ijms160921626

Genetically Encoded Voltage Indicators in Circulation Research

1
Research Centre for Molecular Imaging and Screening, Institute for Molecular Cell Biology, Saarland University, Homburg/Saar 66421, Germany
2
Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Saarland University Medical Center, Homburg/Saar 66421, Germany
3
Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik, Klinikum rechts der Isar der Technischen Universität München, Munich 81675, Germany
4
Department of Material Science, JAIST, Nomi, Ishikawa 923-1292, Japan
5
Cell Function Dynamics, Brain Science Institute, RIKEN, Wako 351-0192, Japan
6
DZHK (German Centre for Cardiovascular Research)-partner site Munich Heart Alliance, Munich, Germany
Current address: HEKA, Lambrecht/Pfalz 67466, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Bernhard Schuster
Received: 23 July 2015 / Revised: 27 August 2015 / Accepted: 31 August 2015 / Published: 8 September 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Membrane Protein Based Biosensors)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2012 KB, uploaded 8 September 2015]   |  

Abstract

Membrane potentials display the cellular status of non-excitable cells and mediate communication between excitable cells via action potentials. The use of genetically encoded biosensors employing fluorescent proteins allows a non-invasive biocompatible way to read out the membrane potential in cardiac myocytes and other cells of the circulation system. Although the approaches to design such biosensors date back to the time when the first fluorescent-protein based Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) sensors were constructed, it took 15 years before reliable sensors became readily available. Here, we review different developments of genetically encoded membrane potential sensors. Furthermore, it is shown how such sensors can be used in pharmacological screening applications as well as in circulation related basic biomedical research. Potentials and limitations will be discussed and perspectives of possible future developments will be provided. View Full-Text
Keywords: Genetically Encoded Voltage Indicators (GEVI); membrane potential; cardiomyocyte; action potential Genetically Encoded Voltage Indicators (GEVI); membrane potential; cardiomyocyte; action potential
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Kaestner, L.; Tian, Q.; Kaiser, E.; Xian, W.; Müller, A.; Oberhofer, M.; Ruppenthal, S.; Sinnecker, D.; Tsutsui, H.; Miyawaki, A.; Moretti, A.; Lipp, P. Genetically Encoded Voltage Indicators in Circulation Research. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 21626-21642.

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