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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(8), 16920-16952; doi:10.3390/ijms160816920

Autonomic Dysregulation in Multiple Sclerosis

1
Institute of Human Physiology and Clinical Experimental Research, Faculty of Medicine, Semmelweis University, Budapest 1085, Hungary
2
Center for Clinical Research and Management Education, Division of Health Care Sciences, Dresden International University, Dresden 01067, Germany
3
Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA
4
Department of Neurology, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden 01307, Germany
5
Department of Psychotherapy and Psychosomatic Medicine, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden 01307, Germany
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Christoph Kleinschnitz and Sven Meuth
Received: 28 June 2015 / Revised: 13 July 2015 / Accepted: 20 July 2015 / Published: 24 July 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Multiple Sclerosis)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [764 KB, uploaded 24 July 2015]   |  

Abstract

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, progressive central neurological disease characterized by inflammation and demyelination. In patients with MS, dysregulation of the autonomic nervous system may present with various clinical symptoms including sweating abnormalities, urinary dysfunction, orthostatic dysregulation, gastrointestinal symptoms, and sexual dysfunction. These autonomic disturbances reduce the quality of life of affected patients and constitute a clinical challenge to the physician due to variability of clinical presentation and inconsistent data on diagnosis and treatment. Early diagnosis and initiation of individualized interdisciplinary and multimodal strategies is beneficial in the management of autonomic dysfunction in MS. This review summarizes the current literature on the most prevalent aspects of autonomic dysfunction in MS and provides reference to underlying pathophysiological mechanisms as well as means of diagnosis and treatment. View Full-Text
Keywords: multiple sclerosis; autonomic; orthostatic dysregulation; bladder; gastrointestinal; dysfunction multiple sclerosis; autonomic; orthostatic dysregulation; bladder; gastrointestinal; dysfunction
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Pintér, A.; Cseh, D.; Sárközi, A.; Illigens, B.M.; Siepmann, T. Autonomic Dysregulation in Multiple Sclerosis. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 16920-16952.

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