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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(7), 16454-16468; doi:10.3390/ijms160716454

Baicalin Protects Mice from Aristolochic Acid I-Induced Kidney Injury by Induction of CYP1A through the Aromatic Hydrocarbon Receptor

1
Key Laboratory of Nuclear Medicine, Ministry of Health, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Molecular Nuclear Medicine, Jiangsu Institute of Nuclear Medicine, Wuxi 214063, Jiangsu, China
2
Center for Drug Safety Evaluation and Research, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201203, China
These authors contributed equally to this study.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Received: 26 May 2015 / Revised: 13 July 2015 / Accepted: 14 July 2015 / Published: 20 July 2015
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Abstract

Exposure to aristolochic acid I (AAI) can lead to aristolochic acid nephropathy (AAN), Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) and urothelial cancer. The induction of hepatic CYP1A, especially CYP1A2, was considered to detoxify AAI so as to reduce its nephrotoxicity. We previously found that baicalin had the strong ability to induce CYP1A2 expression; therefore in this study, we examined the effects of baicalin on AAI toxicity, metabolism and disposition, as well as investigated the underlying mechanisms. Our toxicological studies showed that baicalin reduced the levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (CRE) in AAI-treated mice and attenuated renal injury induced by AAI. Pharmacokinetic analysis demonstrated that baicalin markedly decreased AUC of AAI in plasma and the content of AAI in liver and kidney. CYP1A induction assays showed that baicalin exposure significantly increased the hepatic expression of CYP1A1/2, which was completely abolished by inhibitors of the Aromatic hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), 3ʹ,4ʹ-dimethoxyflavone and resveratrol, in vitro and in vivo, respectively. Moreover, the luciferase assays revealed that baicalin significantly increased the luciferase activity of the reporter gene incorporated with the Xenobiotic response elements recognized by AhR. In summary, baicalin significantly reduced the disposition of AAI and ameliorated AAI-induced kidney toxicity through AhR-dependent CYP1A1/2 induction in the liver. View Full-Text
Keywords: aristolochic acid; kidney injury; baicalin; aromatic hydrocarbon receptor; CYP1A aristolochic acid; kidney injury; baicalin; aromatic hydrocarbon receptor; CYP1A
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Wang, K.; Feng, C.; Li, C.; Yao, J.; Xie, X.; Gong, L.; Luan, Y.; Xing, G.; Zhu, X.; Qi, X.; Ren, J. Baicalin Protects Mice from Aristolochic Acid I-Induced Kidney Injury by Induction of CYP1A through the Aromatic Hydrocarbon Receptor. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 16454-16468.

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