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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(5), 11750-11765; doi:10.3390/ijms160511750

Aminomethylphosphonic Acid and Methoxyacetic Acid Induce Apoptosis in Prostate Cancer Cells

Departments of Structural & Cellular Biology and Orthopaedic Surgery, Tulane Cancer Center and Louisiana Cancer Research Consortium, Tulane Center for Stem Cell Research and Regenerative Medicine, Tulane Center for Aging, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA
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Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Received: 13 April 2015 / Accepted: 15 May 2015 / Published: 22 May 2015
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Abstract

Aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) and its parent compound herbicide glyphosate are analogs to glycine, which have been reported to inhibit proliferation and promote apoptosis of cancer cells, but not normal cells. Methoxyacetic acid (MAA) is the active metabolite of ester phthalates widely used in industry as gelling, viscosity and stabilizer; its exposure is associated with developmental and reproductive toxicities in both rodents and humans. MAA has been reported to suppress prostate cancer cell growth by inducing growth arrest and apoptosis. However, it is unknown whether AMPA and MAA can inhibit cancer cell growth. In this study, we found that AMPA and MAA inhibited cell growth in prostate cancer cell lines (LNCaP, C4-2B, PC-3 and DU-145) through induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase. Importantly, the AMPA-induced apoptosis was potentiated with the addition of MAA, which was due to downregulation of the anti-apoptotic gene baculoviral inhibitor of apoptosis protein repeat containing 2 (BIRC2), leading to activation of caspases 7 and 3. These results demonstrate that the combination of AMPA and MAA can promote the apoptosis of prostate cancer cells, suggesting that they can be used as potential therapeutic drugs in the treatment of prostate cancer. View Full-Text
Keywords: prostate cancer cells; cell death; apoptosis; AMPA; MAA prostate cancer cells; cell death; apoptosis; AMPA; MAA
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Parajuli, K.R.; Zhang, Q.; Liu, S.; You, Z. Aminomethylphosphonic Acid and Methoxyacetic Acid Induce Apoptosis in Prostate Cancer Cells. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 11750-11765.

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