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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(6), 14039-14055; doi:10.3390/ijms160614039

Fungal Community Successions in Rhizosphere Sediment of Seagrasses Enhalus acoroides under PAHs Stress

1
Key Laboratory of Tropical Marine Bio-resources and Ecology, South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510301, China
2
Hainan Tropical Marine Biological Research Station, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Sanya 57200, China
3
State Key Laboratory of Tropical Oceanography, South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510301, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Ji-Dong Gu
Received: 31 March 2015 / Revised: 21 May 2015 / Accepted: 5 June 2015 / Published: 18 June 2015
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Abstract

Seagrass meadows represent one of the highest productive marine ecosystems and are of great ecological and economic values. Recently, they have been confronted with worldwide decline. Fungi play important roles in sustaining the ecosystem health as degraders of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), but fewer studies have been conducted in seagrass ecosystems. Hence, we investigated the dynamic variations of the fungal community succession under PAH stress in rhizosphere sediment of seagrasses Enhalus acoroides in this study. Polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE), quantitative PCR (qPCR) and a clone library have been employed to analyze the fungal community’s shifts. Sequencing results of DGGE and the clone library showed that the predominant species belong to phyla Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. The abundance of three groups decreased sharply over the incubation period, whereas they demonstrated different fungal diversity patterns. Both the exposure time and the PAH concentrations affected the microbial diversity as assessed by PCR-DGGE analysis. Redundancy analysis (RDA) indicated that significant factors driving community shifts were ammonium and pH (p < 0.05). Significant amounts of the variations (31.1%) were explained by pH and ammonium, illustrating that those two parameters were the most likely ones to influence or be influenced by the fungal communities’ changes. Investigation results also indicated that fungal communities in seagrass meadow were very sensitive to PAH-induced stress and may be used as potential indicators for the PAH contamination. View Full-Text
Keywords: seagrass; fungi; PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons); PCR-DGGE (polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis); qPCR (quantitative PCR); RDA (redundancy analysis) seagrass; fungi; PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons); PCR-DGGE (polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis); qPCR (quantitative PCR); RDA (redundancy analysis)
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Ling, J.; Zhang, Y.; Wu, M.; Wang, Y.; Dong, J.; Jiang, Y.; Yang, Q.; Zeng, S. Fungal Community Successions in Rhizosphere Sediment of Seagrasses Enhalus acoroides under PAHs Stress. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 14039-14055.

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