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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(6), 14056-14074; doi:10.3390/ijms160614056

Is Correction of Iron Deficiency a New Addition to the Treatment of the Heart Failure?

1
Department of Nephrology, Tel Aviv Medical Center, Tel Aviv 64239, Israel
2
Department of Cardiology, Tel Aviv Medical Center, Tel Aviv 64239, Israel
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Yi-Han Chen
Received: 7 April 2015 / Revised: 5 June 2015 / Accepted: 11 June 2015 / Published: 18 June 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pathogenesis of Cardiac Arrhythmias and Heart Failure)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [704 KB, uploaded 18 June 2015]

Abstract

Anemia is present in about 40% of heart failure (HF) patients. Iron deficiency (ID) is present in about 60% of the patients with anemia (about 24% of all HF patients) and in about 40% of patients without anemia (about 24% of all HF patients). Thus ID is present in about half the patients with HF. The ID in HF is associated with reduced iron stores in the bone marrow and the heart. ID is an independent risk factor for severity and worsening of the HF. Correction of ID with intravenous (IV) iron usually corrects both the anemia and the ID. Currently used IV iron preparations are very safe and effective in treating the ID in HF whereas little information is available on the effectiveness of oral iron. In HF IV iron correction of ID is associated with improvement in functional status, exercise capacity, quality of life and, in some studies, improvement in rate of hospitalization for HF, cardiac structure and function, and renal function. Large long-term adequately-controlled intervention studies are needed to clarify the effect of IV iron in HF. Several heart associations suggest that ID should be routinely sought for in all HF patients and corrected if present. In this paper we present our approach to diagnosis and treatment of iron deficiency in heart failure. View Full-Text
Keywords: anemia; iron; iron deficiency; intravenous iron; erythropoietin; heart failure; renal failure anemia; iron; iron deficiency; intravenous iron; erythropoietin; heart failure; renal failure
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Silverberg, D.S.; Wexler, D.; Schwartz, D. Is Correction of Iron Deficiency a New Addition to the Treatment of the Heart Failure? Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 14056-14074.

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