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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(6), 12261-12287; doi:10.3390/ijms160612261

Ecotoxicogenomic Approaches for Understanding Molecular Mechanisms of Environmental Chemical Toxicity Using Aquatic Invertebrate, Daphnia Model Organism

1,2,†
,
1,3,†
and
1,2,*
1
Institute of Environmental Medicine for Green Chemistry, Dongguk University Biomedi Campus 32, Dongguk-ro, Ilsandong-gu, Goyang-si, Gyeonggi-do 410-820, Korea
2
Department of Life Science, Dongguk University Biomedi Campus 32, Dongguk-ro, Ilsandong-gu, Goyang-si, Gyeonggi-do 410-820, Korea
3
Faculty of Environment and Resource Studies, Mahidol University, 999 Phuttamonthon 4 Rd., Phuttamonthon District, Nakhon Pathom 73170, Thailand
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Ji-Dong Gu
Received: 31 March 2015 / Revised: 14 May 2015 / Accepted: 15 May 2015 / Published: 29 May 2015
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2975 KB, uploaded 29 May 2015]   |  

Abstract

Due to the rapid advent in genomics technologies and attention to ecological risk assessment, the term “ecotoxicogenomics” has recently emerged to describe integration of omics studies (i.e., transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and epigenomics) into ecotoxicological fields. Ecotoxicogenomics is defined as study of an entire set of genes or proteins expression in ecological organisms to provide insight on environmental toxicity, offering benefit in ecological risk assessment. Indeed, Daphnia is a model species to study aquatic environmental toxicity designated in the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development’s toxicity test guideline and to investigate expression patterns using ecotoxicology-oriented genomics tools. Our main purpose is to demonstrate the potential utility of gene expression profiling in ecotoxicology by identifying novel biomarkers and relevant modes of toxicity in Daphnia magna. These approaches enable us to address adverse phenotypic outcomes linked to particular gene function(s) and mechanistic understanding of aquatic ecotoxicology as well as exploration of useful biomarkers. Furthermore, key challenges that currently face aquatic ecotoxicology (e.g., predicting toxicant responses among a broad spectrum of phytogenetic groups, predicting impact of temporal exposure on toxicant responses) necessitate the parallel use of other model organisms, both aquatic and terrestrial. By investigating gene expression profiling in an environmentally important organism, this provides viable support for the utility of ecotoxicogenomics. View Full-Text
Keywords: water flea; Daphnia spp.; ecological risk assessment; ecotoxicogenomics; predictive toxicology water flea; Daphnia spp.; ecological risk assessment; ecotoxicogenomics; predictive toxicology
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Kim, H.J.; Koedrith, P.; Seo, Y.R. Ecotoxicogenomic Approaches for Understanding Molecular Mechanisms of Environmental Chemical Toxicity Using Aquatic Invertebrate, Daphnia Model Organism. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 12261-12287.

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