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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(6), 11903-11965; doi:10.3390/ijms160611903

What’s New in Traumatic Brain Injury: Update on Tracking, Monitoring and Treatment

1
Department of Anesthesiology, Loma Linda University Medical Center, Loma Linda, CA 92354, USA
2
Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Loma Linda University School of Medicine, 11041 Campus Street, Risley Hall, Room 219, Loma Linda, CA 92354, USA
3
Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, University of Jinan, Guangzhou 250012, China
4
Department of Neurosurgery, University Hospital Innsbruck, Tyrol 6020, Austria
5
Department of Neurosurgery, Loma Linda University School of Medicine, Loma Linda, CA 92354, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Xiaofeng Jia
Received: 26 March 2015 / Revised: 4 May 2015 / Accepted: 6 May 2015 / Published: 26 May 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neurological Injuries’ Monitoring, Tracking and Treatment)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [877 KB, uploaded 26 May 2015]

Abstract

Traumatic brain injury (TBI), defined as an alteration in brain functions caused by an external force, is responsible for high morbidity and mortality around the world. It is important to identify and treat TBI victims as early as possible. Tracking and monitoring TBI with neuroimaging technologies, including functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), positron emission tomography (PET), and high definition fiber tracking (HDFT) show increasing sensitivity and specificity. Classical electrophysiological monitoring, together with newly established brain-on-chip, cerebral microdialysis techniques, both benefit TBI. First generation molecular biomarkers, based on genomic and proteomic changes following TBI, have proven effective and economical. It is conceivable that TBI-specific biomarkers will be developed with the combination of systems biology and bioinformation strategies. Advances in treatment of TBI include stem cell-based and nanotechnology-based therapy, physical and pharmaceutical interventions and also new use in TBI for approved drugs which all present favorable promise in preventing and reversing TBI. View Full-Text
Keywords: traumatic brain injury; neuroimaging; electrophysiology; stem cell; hypothermia; nano particle; biomarker; microdialysis; proteomic; genomic traumatic brain injury; neuroimaging; electrophysiology; stem cell; hypothermia; nano particle; biomarker; microdialysis; proteomic; genomic
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Reis, C.; Wang, Y.; Akyol, O.; Ho, W.M.; II, R.A.; Stier, G.; Martin, R.; Zhang, J.H. What’s New in Traumatic Brain Injury: Update on Tracking, Monitoring and Treatment. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 11903-11965.

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