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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(5), 9949-9975; doi:10.3390/ijms16059949

Pathogenesis of Brain Edema and Investigation into Anti-Edema Drugs

Laboratory of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Osaka Ohtani University, Tonda-bayashi, Osaka 584-8540, Japan
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Xiaofeng Jia
Received: 13 March 2015 / Revised: 15 April 2015 / Accepted: 27 April 2015 / Published: 30 April 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neurological Injuries’ Monitoring, Tracking and Treatment)
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Abstract

Brain edema is a potentially fatal pathological state that occurs after brain injuries such as stroke and head trauma. In the edematous brain, excess accumulation of extracellular fluid results in elevation of intracranial pressure, leading to impaired nerve function. Despite the seriousness of brain edema, only symptomatic treatments to remove edema fluid are currently available. Thus, the development of novel anti-edema drugs is required. The pathogenesis of brain edema is classified as vasogenic or cytotoxic edema. Vasogenic edema is defined as extracellular accumulation of fluid resulting from disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and extravasations of serum proteins, while cytotoxic edema is characterized by cell swelling caused by intracellular accumulation of fluid. Various experimental animal models are often used to investigate mechanisms underlying brain edema. Many soluble factors and functional molecules have been confirmed to induce BBB disruption or cell swelling and drugs targeted to these factors are expected to have anti-edema effects. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms and involvement of factors that induce brain edema formation, and the possibility of anti-edema drugs targeting them. View Full-Text
Keywords: aquaporin; blood-brain barrier; cold injury; cytotoxic edema; ETB receptor; fluid percussion injury; matrix metalloproteinase; vascular endothelial growth factor; vasogenic edema aquaporin; blood-brain barrier; cold injury; cytotoxic edema; ETB receptor; fluid percussion injury; matrix metalloproteinase; vascular endothelial growth factor; vasogenic edema
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Michinaga, S.; Koyama, Y. Pathogenesis of Brain Edema and Investigation into Anti-Edema Drugs. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 9949-9975.

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