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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(6), 14171-14180; doi:10.3390/ijms160614171

Memantine Attenuates Delayed Vasospasm after Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage via Modulating Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase

1
Institute of Clinical Medicine, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 704, Taiwan
2
Department of Surgery, National Cheng Kung University Hospital, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 704, Taiwan
3
Center of Clinical Medicine, National Cheng Kung University Hospital, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 704, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Xiaofeng Jia
Received: 18 February 2015 / Revised: 9 June 2015 / Accepted: 16 June 2015 / Published: 23 June 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neurological Injuries’ Monitoring, Tracking and Treatment)
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Abstract

Delayed cerebral vasospasm is an important pathological feature of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The cause of vasospasm is multifactorial. Impairs nitric oxide availability and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) dysfunction has been reported to underlie vasospasm. Memantine, a low-affinity uncompetitive N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) blocker has been proven to reduce early brain injury after SAH. This study investigated the effect of memantine on attenuation of vasospasm and restoring eNOS functionality. Male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 350–450 g were randomly divided into three weight-matched groups, sham surgery, SAH + vehicle, and SAH + memantine groups. The effects of memantine on SAH were evaluated by assessing the severity of vasospasm and the expression of eNOS. Memantine effectively ameliorated cerebral vasospasm by restoring eNOS functionality. Memantine can prevent vasospasm in experimental SAH. Treatment strategies may help combat SAH-induced vasospasm in the future. View Full-Text
Keywords: memantine; nitric oxide synthase; subarachnoid hemorrhage; vasospasm memantine; nitric oxide synthase; subarachnoid hemorrhage; vasospasm
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Huang, C.-Y.; Wang, L.-C.; Shan, Y.-S.; Pan, C.-H.; Tsai, K.-J. Memantine Attenuates Delayed Vasospasm after Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage via Modulating Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 14171-14180.

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