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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(5), 10665-10673; doi:10.3390/ijms160510665

Consumption of Bilberries Controls Gingival Inflammation

1
School of Health & Society, University of Kristianstad, SE-29188 Kristianstad, Sweden
2
School of Life and Health Sciences, Aston University, B4 7ET Birmingham, UK
3
Blekinge Institute of Technology, SE-37179 Karlskrona, Sweden
4
Department of Restorative Dentistry and Periodontology, Trinity College, Dublin Dental University Hospital, 2 Dublin, Ireland
5
School of Dentistry, Department of Periodontics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Guido Haenen
Received: 13 April 2015 / Revised: 4 May 2015 / Accepted: 7 May 2015 / Published: 11 May 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant 2.0——Redox Modulation by Food and Drugs)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [677 KB, uploaded 11 May 2015]   |  

Abstract

Bioactive molecules in berries may be helpful in reducing the risk of oral diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of bilberry consumption on the outcome of a routine dental clinical parameter of inflammation, bleeding on probing (BOP), as well as the impact on selected biomarkers of inflammation, such as cytokines, in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) in individuals with gingivitis. Study individuals who did not receive standard of care treatment were allocated to either a placebo group or to groups that consumed either 250 or 500 g bilberries daily over seven days. The placebo group consumed an inactive product (starch). A study group, receiving standard of care (debridement only) was also included to provide a reference to standard of care treatment outcome. Cytokine levels were assayed using the Luminex MagPix system. The mean reduction in BOP before and after consumption of test product over 1 week was 41% and 59% in the groups that consumed either 250 or 500 g of bilberries/day respectively, and was 31% in the placebo group, and 58% in the standard of care reference group. The analysis only showed a significant reduction in cytokine levels in the group that consumed 500 g of bilberries/day. A statistically significant reduction was observed for IL-1b (p = 0.025), IL-6 (p = 0.012) and VEGF (p = 0.017) in GCF samples in the group that consumed 500 g of bilberries daily. It appears that berry intake has an ameliorating effect on some markers of gingival inflammation reducing gingivitis to a similar extent compared to standard of care. View Full-Text
Keywords: bleeding; clinical study; cytokines; gingival crevicular fluid; human bleeding; clinical study; cytokines; gingival crevicular fluid; human
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Widén, C.; Coleman, M.; Critén, S.; Karlgren-Andersson, P.; Renvert, S.; Persson, G.R. Consumption of Bilberries Controls Gingival Inflammation. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 10665-10673.

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