Carotenoid Profile of Tomato Sauces: Effect of Cooking Time and Content of Extra Virgin Olive Oil
AbstractThe consumption of carotenoid-rich vegetables such as tomatoes and tomato sauces is associated with reduced risk of several chronic diseases. The predominant carotenoids in tomato products are in the (all-E) configuration, but (Z) isomers can be formed during thermal processing. The effect of cooking time (15, 30, 45 and 60 min) and the addition of extra virgin olive oil (5% and 10%) on the carotenoid extractability of tomato sauces was monitored using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) and LC-ultraviolet detection (LC-UV). The thermal treatment and the addition of extra virgin olive oil increased the levels of antioxidant activity, total carotenoids, Z-lycopene isomers, α-carotene and β-carotene. These results are of particular nutritional benefit since higher lycopene intake has been associated with a reduced risk of lethal prostate and a reduction of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels. Moreover, β-carotene has been reported to suppress the up-regulation of heme oxygenase-1 gene expression in a dose dependent manner and to suppress UVA-induced HO-1 gene expression in cultured FEK4. View Full-Text
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Vallverdú-Queralt, A.; Regueiro, J.; de Alvarenga, J.F.R.; Torrado, X.; Lamuela-Raventos, R.M. Carotenoid Profile of Tomato Sauces: Effect of Cooking Time and Content of Extra Virgin Olive Oil. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 9588-9599.
Vallverdú-Queralt A, Regueiro J, de Alvarenga JFR, Torrado X, Lamuela-Raventos RM. Carotenoid Profile of Tomato Sauces: Effect of Cooking Time and Content of Extra Virgin Olive Oil. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2015; 16(5):9588-9599.Chicago/Turabian Style
Vallverdú-Queralt, Anna; Regueiro, Jorge; de Alvarenga, José F.R.; Torrado, Xavier; Lamuela-Raventos, Rosa M. 2015. "Carotenoid Profile of Tomato Sauces: Effect of Cooking Time and Content of Extra Virgin Olive Oil." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 16, no. 5: 9588-9599.