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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(5), 9588-9599; doi:10.3390/ijms16059588

Carotenoid Profile of Tomato Sauces: Effect of Cooking Time and Content of Extra Virgin Olive Oil

1
INRA, UMR1083 Sciences pour l'œnologie, 2 Place Pierre Viala, Montpellier Cedex 34060, France
2
CIBER Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y la Nutrición (CIBEROBN), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, 28029 Madrid, Spain
3
Nutrition and Bromatology Group, Analytical and Food Chemistry Department, Faculty of Food Science and Technology, Ourense Campus, University of Vigo, E-32004 Ourense, Spain
4
Department of Food Science and Nutrition, School of Pharmaceutical Science, São Paulo State University—UNESP, Rod. Araraquara-Jaú Km 1, 14801-902 Araraquara, SP–CEP 14801-902 São Paulo, Brazil
5
Nutrition and Food Science Department, XaRTA, INSA. Pharmacy School, University of Barcelona, Av. Joan XXIII s/n, 08028 Barcelona, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Guido Haenen
Received: 19 February 2015 / Revised: 15 April 2015 / Accepted: 23 April 2015 / Published: 28 April 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant 2.0——Redox Modulation by Food and Drugs)
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Abstract

The consumption of carotenoid-rich vegetables such as tomatoes and tomato sauces is associated with reduced risk of several chronic diseases. The predominant carotenoids in tomato products are in the (all-E) configuration, but (Z) isomers can be formed during thermal processing. The effect of cooking time (15, 30, 45 and 60 min) and the addition of extra virgin olive oil (5% and 10%) on the carotenoid extractability of tomato sauces was monitored using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) and LC-ultraviolet detection (LC-UV). The thermal treatment and the addition of extra virgin olive oil increased the levels of antioxidant activity, total carotenoids, Z-lycopene isomers, α-carotene and β-carotene. These results are of particular nutritional benefit since higher lycopene intake has been associated with a reduced risk of lethal prostate and a reduction of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels. Moreover, β-carotene has been reported to suppress the up-regulation of heme oxygenase-1 gene expression in a dose dependent manner and to suppress UVA-induced HO-1 gene expression in cultured FEK4. View Full-Text
Keywords: LC-ESI-MS/MS; LC-UV; C30 column; β-carotene; α-carotene; lycopene; antioxidant capacity LC-ESI-MS/MS; LC-UV; C30 column; β-carotene; α-carotene; lycopene; antioxidant capacity
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Vallverdú-Queralt, A.; Regueiro, J.; de Alvarenga, J.F.R.; Torrado, X.; Lamuela-Raventos, R.M. Carotenoid Profile of Tomato Sauces: Effect of Cooking Time and Content of Extra Virgin Olive Oil. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 9588-9599.

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