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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(4), 7917-7931; doi:10.3390/ijms16047917

Pathogenesis of Renal Disease in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus—The Role of Autoantibodies and Lymphocytes Subset Abnormalities

Nephrology Division, Department of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Vera Sau-Fong Chan
Received: 11 January 2015 / Accepted: 2 March 2015 / Published: 9 April 2015
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Abstract

Lupus nephritis (LN) is a common and severe organ manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and is associated with significant patient morbidity and mortality. Autoantibodies and aberrations in lymphocyte subsets have putative roles in the pathogenesis of SLE and LN, and might reflect disease activity and are amenable to immunosuppressive treatments. Anti-DNA is one of the well-studied autoantibodies, which correlates with disease activity and has direct nephritogenic effects on resident renal cells and various glomerular components. Other important autoantibodies in the pathogenesis of LN include anti-C1q, anti-α-actinin and anti-nucleosome antibodies. Changes in naive and memory B cells and plasma cells have been observed in SLE and LN patients. These B cell subsets exert diverse effects during pathogenesis of LN such as production of autoantibodies, secretion of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines and presentation of auto-antigens to effector cells. Aberration of T lymphocytes, especially the T-helper subsets, is also highly pertinent in the development of LN. In this context, important T helper subsets include Th1, Th2, Th9, Th17, TReg and follicular T-helper cells. The growing knowledge on these autoantibodies and lymphocyte subset abnormalities will enhance our understanding of SLE and LN, and hence help devise better strategies for disease monitoring and treatment. View Full-Text
Keywords: autoantibodies; lupus nephritis; lymphocytes; pathogenesis; subsets autoantibodies; lupus nephritis; lymphocytes; pathogenesis; subsets
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Yap, D.Y.H.; Lai, K.N. Pathogenesis of Renal Disease in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus—The Role of Autoantibodies and Lymphocytes Subset Abnormalities. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 7917-7931.

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