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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(4), 7900-7916; doi:10.3390/ijms16047900

Posttraumatic Inflammation as a Key to Neuroregeneration after Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury

1
Heidelberg Trauma Research Group, Trauma and Reconstructive Surgery, Center for Orthopedics, Trauma Surgery and Spinal Cord Injury, Heidelberg University Hospital, Schlierbacher Landstraße 200a, D-69118 Heidelberg, Germany
2
Institute for Medical Biometry and Informatics, Heidelberg University Hospital, Im Neuenheimer Feld 305, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany
3
Department of Transplantation Immunology, Institute of Immunology, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 305, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany
4
Berufsgenossenschaftliche Unfallklinik Ludwigshafen, Department of Paraplegiology, Ludwig-Guttmann-Straße-13, D-67071 Ludwigshafen, Germany
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Xiaofeng Jia
Received: 4 February 2015 / Revised: 17 March 2015 / Accepted: 26 March 2015 / Published: 9 April 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neurological Injuries’ Monitoring, Tracking and Treatment)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1960 KB, uploaded 9 April 2015]   |  

Abstract

Pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines might have a large impact on the secondary phase and on the neurological outcome of patients with acute spinal cord injury (SCI). We measured the serum levels of different cytokines (Interferon-γ, Tumor Necrosis Factor-α, Interleukin-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor) over a 12-week period in 40 acute traumatic SCI patients: at admission on average one hour after initial trauma; at four, nine, 12, and 24 h; Three, and seven days after admission; and two, four, eight, and twelve weeks after admission. This was done using a Luminex Performance Human High Sensitivity Cytokine Panel. SCI was classified using the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) Impairment Scale (AIS) at time of admission and after 12 weeks. TNFα, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10 concentrations were significantly higher in patients without neurological remission and in patients with an initial AIS A (p < 0.05). This study shows significant differences in cytokine concentrations shown in traumatic SCI patients with different neurological impairments and within a 12-week period. IL-8 and IL-10 are potential peripheral markers for neurological remission and rehabilitation after traumatic SCI. Furthermore our cytokine expression pattern of the acute, subacute, and intermediate phase of SCI establishes a possible basis for future studies to develop standardized monitoring, prognostic, and tracking techniques. View Full-Text
Keywords: spinal cord injury; neuroregeneration; cytokines; inflammation; trauma spinal cord injury; neuroregeneration; cytokines; inflammation; trauma
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Moghaddam, A.; Child, C.; Bruckner, T.; Gerner, H.J.; Daniel, V.; Biglari, B. Posttraumatic Inflammation as a Key to Neuroregeneration after Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 7900-7916.

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