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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(2), 2839-2850; doi:10.3390/ijms16022839

Combined Toxic Effects of Heavy Metals and Antibiotics on a Pseudomonas fluorescens Strain ZY2 Isolated from Swine Wastewater

School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006, China
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Ji-Dong Gu
Received: 14 October 2014 / Revised: 7 January 2015 / Accepted: 14 January 2015 / Published: 27 January 2015
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Abstract

A Pseudomonas fluorescens strain ZY2, isolated from swine wastewater, was used to investigate the synergistic effects of five heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Zn, Cr(VI) and Hg) on bacterial resistance to antibiotics. Results indicate that the combined effects of antibiotic type, heavy metal type and concentration were significant (p < 0.01). Cross-resistance to Hg and antibiotics was the most noticeable. Moreover, the resistance to Hg and cefradine or amoxicillin, and Cr and amoxicillin were synergistic for low heavy metal concentrations, and turned antagonistic with increasing concentrations, while the resistances to Cr or Cu and cefradine, Pb or Cu and amoxicillin, Cu and norfloxacin showed reverse effects. In addition, resistance to Zn and amoxicillin were always synergetic, while resistance to Pb and cefradine or norfloxacin, Cr or Hg and norfloxacin as well as all the heavy metals and tetracycline were antagonistic. These results indicate that bacterial resistance to antibiotics can be affected by the type and concentration of co-exposed heavy metals and may further threaten people’s health and ecological security severely via horizontal gene transfer. View Full-Text
Keywords: Pseudomonas fluorescens; resistance; antibiotic; heavy metal; swine wastewater Pseudomonas fluorescens; resistance; antibiotic; heavy metal; swine wastewater
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhou, Y.; Xu, Y.-B.; Xu, J.-X.; Zhang, X.-H.; Xu, S.-H.; Du, Q.-P. Combined Toxic Effects of Heavy Metals and Antibiotics on a Pseudomonas fluorescens Strain ZY2 Isolated from Swine Wastewater. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 2839-2850.

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