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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(2), 2472-2496; doi:10.3390/ijms16022472

Promoter Hypermethylation of Tumour Suppressor Genes as Potential Biomarkers in Colorectal Cancer

Institute of Digestive Disease and Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, State Key Laboratory of Digestive Disease, Li Ka Shing Institute of Health Sciences, CUHK Shenzhen Research Institute, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Camile S. Farah
Received: 30 October 2014 / Revised: 2 December 2014 / Accepted: 14 January 2015 / Published: 22 January 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Classes of Biomarkers for Molecular Diagnostics)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [731 KB, uploaded 22 January 2015]

Abstract

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a common malignancy and the fourth leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. It results from the accumulation of multiple genetic and epigenetic changes leading to the transformation of colon epithelial cells into invasive adenocarcinomas. In CRC, epigenetic changes, in particular promoter CpG island methylation, occur more frequently than genetic mutations. Hypermethylation contributes to carcinogenesis by inducing transcriptional silencing or downregulation of tumour suppressor genes and currently, over 600 candidate hypermethylated genes have been identified. Over the past decade, a deeper understanding of epigenetics coupled with technological advances have hinted at the potential of translating benchtop research into biomarkers for clinical use. DNA methylation represents one of the largest bodies of literature in epigenetics, and hence has the highest potential for minimally invasive biomarker development. Most progress has been made in the development of diagnostic markers and there are currently two, one stool-based and one blood-based, biomarkers that are commercially available for diagnostics. Prognostic and predictive methylation markers are still at their infantile stages. View Full-Text
Keywords: colorectal cancer; tumour suppressor gene; promoter methylation; CpG islands; biomarkers colorectal cancer; tumour suppressor gene; promoter methylation; CpG islands; biomarkers
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Ng, J.M.-K.; Yu, J. Promoter Hypermethylation of Tumour Suppressor Genes as Potential Biomarkers in Colorectal Cancer. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 2472-2496.

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