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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(10), 25605-25640; doi:10.3390/ijms161025605

Perturbation of Brain Oscillations after Ischemic Stroke: A Potential Biomarker for Post-Stroke Function and Therapy

1,2,3,4
,
1,2
,
1,2,5
,
1,2,6
and
1,2,*
1
Department of Neurological Surgery, University of California at San Francisco and Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 1700 Owens Street, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA
2
UCSF and SFVAMC, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA
3
Univ. de Bordeaux, Institut des Maladies Neurodégénératives, UMR 5293, Bordeaux 33000, France
4
CNRS, Institut des Maladies Neurodégénératives, UMR 5293, Bordeaux 33000, France
5
Department of Neurosurgery, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine 1-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8574, Japan
6
Rice University, 6100 Main St, Houston, TX 77005, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Xiaofeng Jia
Received: 14 July 2015 / Revised: 6 October 2015 / Accepted: 15 October 2015 / Published: 26 October 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neurological Injuries’ Monitoring, Tracking and Treatment)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1002 KB, uploaded 26 October 2015]   |  

Abstract

Brain waves resonate from the generators of electrical current and propagate across brain regions with oscillation frequencies ranging from 0.05 to 500 Hz. The commonly observed oscillatory waves recorded by an electroencephalogram (EEG) in normal adult humans can be grouped into five main categories according to the frequency and amplitude, namely δ (1–4 Hz, 20–200 μV), θ (4–8 Hz, 10 μV), α (8–12 Hz, 20–200 μV), β (12–30 Hz, 5–10 μV), and γ (30–80 Hz, low amplitude). Emerging evidence from experimental and human studies suggests that groups of function and behavior seem to be specifically associated with the presence of each oscillation band, although the complex relationship between oscillation frequency and function, as well as the interaction between brain oscillations, are far from clear. Changes of brain oscillation patterns have long been implicated in the diseases of the central nervous system including ischemic stroke, in which the reduction of cerebral blood flow as well as the progression of tissue damage have direct spatiotemporal effects on the power of several oscillatory bands and their interactions. This review summarizes the current knowledge in behavior and function associated with each brain oscillation, and also in the specific changes in brain electrical activities that correspond to the molecular events and functional alterations observed after experimental and human stroke. We provide the basis of the generations of brain oscillations and potential cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying stroke-induced perturbation. We will also discuss the implications of using brain oscillation patterns as biomarkers for the prediction of stroke outcome and therapeutic efficacy. View Full-Text
Keywords: electroencephalography; action potential; MCAO; CBF electroencephalography; action potential; MCAO; CBF
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Rabiller, G.; He, J.-W.; Nishijima, Y.; Wong, A.; Liu, J. Perturbation of Brain Oscillations after Ischemic Stroke: A Potential Biomarker for Post-Stroke Function and Therapy. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 25605-25640.

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