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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(9), 22368-22401; doi:10.3390/ijms160922368

Neuroprotective Strategies after Neonatal Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy

1
Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Loma Linda University School of Medicine, Loma Linda, CA 92354, USA
2
Department of Anesthesiology, Loma Linda University Medical Center, Loma Linda, CA 92354, USA
3
Department of Neurosurgery, Medical University Innsbruck, Tyrol 6020, Austria
4
Department of Neurosurgery, Loma Linda University School of Medicine, Loma Linda, CA 92354, USA
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Xiaofeng Jia
Received: 14 July 2015 / Revised: 31 August 2015 / Accepted: 6 September 2015 / Published: 15 September 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neurological Injuries’ Monitoring, Tracking and Treatment)
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Abstract

Neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is a devastating disease that primarily causes neuronal and white matter injury and is among the leading cause of death among infants. Currently there are no well-established treatments; thus, it is important to understand the pathophysiology of the disease and elucidate complications that are creating a gap between basic science and clinical translation. In the development of neuroprotective strategies and translation of experimental results in HIE, there are many limitations and challenges to master based on an appropriate study design, drug delivery properties, dosage, and use in neonates. We will identify understudied targets after HIE, as well as neuroprotective molecules that bring hope to future treatments such as melatonin, topiramate, xenon, interferon-beta, stem cell transplantation. This review will also discuss some of the most recent trials being conducted in the clinical setting and evaluate what directions are needed in the future. View Full-Text
Keywords: neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy; neuroprotection; intervention strategy; therapeutic strategy neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy; neuroprotection; intervention strategy; therapeutic strategy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Dixon, B.J.; Reis, C.; Ho, W.M.; Tang, J.; Zhang, J.H. Neuroprotective Strategies after Neonatal Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 22368-22401.

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