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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(10), 23482-23516; doi:10.3390/ijms161023482

Mutagenic Effects of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles on Biological Cells

Department of Chemistry, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI 49008, USA
These authors contributed equally to this work.
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Academic Editor: Yuping Bao
Received: 8 August 2015 / Revised: 14 September 2015 / Accepted: 18 September 2015 / Published: 30 September 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Developmental and Reproductive Toxicity of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles)
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Abstract

In recent years, there has been an increased interest in the design and use of iron oxide materials with nanoscale dimensions for magnetic, catalytic, biomedical, and electronic applications. The increased manufacture and use of iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) in consumer products as well as industrial processes is expected to lead to the unintentional release of IONPs into the environment. The impact of IONPs on the environment and on biological species is not well understood but remains a concern due to the increased chemical reactivity of nanoparticles relative to their bulk counterparts. This review article describes the impact of IONPs on cellular genetic components. The mutagenic impact of IONPs may damage an organism’s ability to develop or reproduce. To date, there has been experimental evidence of IONPs having mutagenic interactions on human cell lines including lymphoblastoids, fibroblasts, microvascular endothelial cells, bone marrow cells, lung epithelial cells, alveolar type II like epithelial cells, bronchial fibroblasts, skin epithelial cells, hepatocytes, cerebral endothelial cells, fibrosarcoma cells, breast carcinoma cells, lung carcinoma cells, and cervix carcinoma cells. Other cell lines including the Chinese hamster ovary cells, mouse fibroblast cells, murine fibroblast cells, Mytilus galloprovincialis sperm cells, mice lung cells, murine alveolar macrophages, mice hepatic and renal tissue cells, and vero cells have also shown mutagenic effects upon exposure to IONPs. We further show the influence of IONPs on microorganisms in the presence and absence of dissolved organic carbon. The results shed light on the OPEN ACCESS Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16 23483 transformations IONPs undergo in the environment and the nature of the potential mutagenic impact on biological cells. View Full-Text
Keywords: iron oxide nanoparticles; mutagenicity; mammalian cells; bacteria; environmental impact; humic acid; 8-OHdG iron oxide nanoparticles; mutagenicity; mammalian cells; bacteria; environmental impact; humic acid; 8-OHdG
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Dissanayake, N.M.; Current, K.M.; Obare, S.O. Mutagenic Effects of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles on Biological Cells. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 23482-23516.

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