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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(9), 22243-22257; doi:10.3390/ijms160922243

Characterization, Quantification, and Determination of the Toxicity of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles to the Bone Marrow Cells

1
Department of Food Science and Technology, Sejong University, 209 Neungdong-ro, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-747, Korea
2
Department of Microbiology and Institute for Immunology and Immunological Diseases, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752, Korea
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Anna Cristina S. Samia
Received: 6 August 2015 / Revised: 30 August 2015 / Accepted: 10 September 2015 / Published: 14 September 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Developmental and Reproductive Toxicity of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles)
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Abstract

Iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) have been used to develop iron supplements for improving the bioavailability of iron in patients with iron deficiency, which is one of the most serious nutritional deficiencies in the world. Accurate information about the characteristics, concentration, and cytotoxicity of IONPs to the developmental and reproductive cells enables safe use of IONPs in the supplement industry. The objective of this study was to analyze the physicochemical properties and cytotoxicity of IONPs in bone marrow cells. We prepared three different types of iron samples (surface-modified iron oxide nanoparticles (SMNPs), IONPs, and iron citrate) and analyzed their physicochemical properties such as particle size distribution, zeta potential, and morphology. In addition, we examined the cytotoxicity of the IONPs in various kinds of bone marrow cells. We analyzed particle size distribution, zeta potential, iron levels, and subcellular localization of the iron samples in bone marrow cells. Our results showed that the iron samples were not cytotoxic to the bone marrow cells and did not affect the expression of cell surface markers and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced the secretion of cytokines by murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs). Our results may be used to investigate the interactions between nanoparticles and cells and tissues and the developmental toxicity of nanoparticles. View Full-Text
Keywords: iron nanoparticle; physicochemical property; cytotoxicity; bone marrow cell iron nanoparticle; physicochemical property; cytotoxicity; bone marrow cell
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Paik, S.-Y.-R.; Kim, J.-S.; Shin, S.J.; Ko, S. Characterization, Quantification, and Determination of the Toxicity of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles to the Bone Marrow Cells. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 22243-22257.

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