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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(10), 23630-23650; doi:10.3390/ijms161023630

Iron Oxide and Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticle Effects on Plant Performance and Root Associated Microbes

1
Holden Arboretum, Kirtland, OH 44094, USA
2
Department of Chemistry, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA
3
Department of Chemistry, Mercer University, Macon, GA 31207, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Eleftherios P. Eleftheriou
Received: 30 July 2015 / Revised: 23 September 2015 / Accepted: 25 September 2015 / Published: 5 October 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Developmental and Reproductive Toxicity of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles)
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Abstract

In this study, we investigated the effect of positively and negatively charged Fe3O4 and TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) on the growth of soybean plants (Glycine max.) and their root associated soil microbes. Soybean plants were grown in a greenhouse for six weeks after application of different amounts of NPs, and plant growth and nutrient content were examined. Roots were analyzed for colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and nodule-forming nitrogen fixing bacteria using DNA-based techniques. We found that plant growth was significantly lower with the application of TiO2 as compared to Fe3O4 NPs. The leaf carbon was also marginally significant lower in plants treated with TiO2 NPs; however, leaf phosphorus was reduced in plants treated with Fe3O4. We found no effects of NP type, concentration, or charge on the community structure of either rhizobia or AM fungi colonizing plant roots. However, the charge of the Fe3O4 NPs affected both colonization of the root system by rhizobia as well as leaf phosphorus content. Our results indicate that the type of NP can affect plant growth and nutrient content in an agriculturally important crop species, and that the charge of these particles influences the colonization of the root system by nitrogen-fixing bacteria. View Full-Text
Keywords: iron oxide nanoparticles; titanium dioxide nanoparticles; arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi; Glycine max; microbial communities; nitrogen-fixing bacteria iron oxide nanoparticles; titanium dioxide nanoparticles; arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi; Glycine max; microbial communities; nitrogen-fixing bacteria
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Burke, D.J.; Pietrasiak, N.; Situ, S.F.; Abenojar, E.C.; Porche, M.; Kraj, P.; Lakliang, Y.; Samia, A.C.S. Iron Oxide and Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticle Effects on Plant Performance and Root Associated Microbes. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 23630-23650.

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