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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(1), 1232-1251; doi:10.3390/ijms16011232

Anti-Inflammatory and Analgesic Effects of Pyeongwisan on LPS-Stimulated Murine Macrophages and Mouse Models of Acetic Acid-Induced Writhing Response and Xylene-Induced Ear Edema

Korean Medicine (KM)-Based Herbal Drug Development Group, Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine, 461-24, Jeonmin-dong, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-811, Korea
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Academic Editor: Piera Cicchetti
Received: 15 September 2014 / Accepted: 17 November 2014 / Published: 6 January 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
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Abstract

Pyeongwisan (PW) is an herbal medication used in traditional East Asian medicine to treat anorexia, abdominal distension, borborygmus and diarrhea caused by gastric catarrh, atony and dilatation. However, its effects on inflammation-related diseases are unknown. In this study, we investigated the biological effects of PW on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated inflammation in macrophages and on local inflammation in vivo. We investigated the biological effects of PW on the production of inflammatory mediators, pro-inflammatory cytokines and related products as well as the activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in LPS-stimulated macrophages. Additionally, we evaluated the analgesic effect on the acetic acid-induced writhing response and the inhibitory activity on xylene-induced ear edema in mice. PW showed anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting the production of nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β). In addition, PW strongly suppressed inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), a NO synthesis enzyme, induced heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression and inhibited NF-κB activation and MAPK phosphorylation. Also, PW suppressed TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β cytokine production in LPS-stimulated peritoneal macrophage cells. Furthermore, PW showed an analgesic effect on the writhing response and an inhibitory effect on mice ear edema. We demonstrated the anti-inflammatory effects and inhibitory mechanism in macrophages as well as inhibitory activity of PW in vivo for the first time. Our results suggest the potential value of PW as an inflammatory therapeutic agent developed from a natural substance. View Full-Text
Keywords: PW; HO-1; NF-κB; acetic acid-induced writhing response; xylene-induced mice ear edema PW; HO-1; NF-κB; acetic acid-induced writhing response; xylene-induced mice ear edema
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Oh, Y.-C.; Jeong, Y.H.; Cho, W.-K.; Ha, J.-H.; Gu, M.J.; Ma, J.Y. Anti-Inflammatory and Analgesic Effects of Pyeongwisan on LPS-Stimulated Murine Macrophages and Mouse Models of Acetic Acid-Induced Writhing Response and Xylene-Induced Ear Edema. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 1232-1251.

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