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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(5), 8335-8351; doi:10.3390/ijms15058335
Review

Apoptotic Death of Cancer Stem Cells for Cancer Therapy

1
,
1
,
2
,
1,*  and 1,2,*
1 Division of Stem Cell Regulation and Application, College of Medicine, Hunan University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Changsha 410208, China 2 Department of Medical Microbiology, Immunology & Cell Biology, Simmons Cancer Institute, Southern Illinois University School of Medicine, 913 N, Rutledge Street, Springfield, IL 62702, USA
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 February 2014 / Revised: 18 April 2014 / Accepted: 18 April 2014 / Published: 12 May 2014
(This article belongs to the collection Programmed Cell Death and Apoptosis)
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Abstract

Cancer stem cells (CSCs) play crucial roles in tumor progression, chemo- and radiotherapy resistance, and recurrence. Recent studies on CSCs have advanced understanding of molecular oncology and development of novel therapeutic strategies. This review article updates the hypothesis and paradigm of CSCs with a focus on major signaling pathways and effectors that regulate CSC apoptosis. Selective CSC apoptotic inducers are introduced and their therapeutic potentials are discussed. These include synthetic and natural compounds, antibodies and recombinant proteins, and oligonucleotides.
Keywords: cancer stem cells; side population; apoptosis; apoptotic inducers; apoptotic death pathways; and cancer therapy cancer stem cells; side population; apoptosis; apoptotic inducers; apoptotic death pathways; and cancer therapy
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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He, Y.-C.; Zhou, F.-L.; Shen, Y.; Liao, D.-F.; Cao, D. Apoptotic Death of Cancer Stem Cells for Cancer Therapy. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15, 8335-8351.

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