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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(5), 7250-7265; doi:10.3390/ijms15057250
Article

Indian Hedgehog in Synovial Fluid Is a Novel Marker for Early Cartilage Lesions in Human Knee Joint

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Received: 10 February 2014; in revised form: 11 April 2014 / Accepted: 14 April 2014 / Published: 28 April 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Chondrocyte Phenotype in Cartilage Biology)
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Abstract: To determine whether there is a correlation between the concentration of Indian hedgehog (Ihh) in synovial fluid (SF) and the severity of cartilage damage in the human knee joints, the knee cartilages from patients were classified using the Outer-bridge scoring system and graded using the Modified Mankin score. Expression of Ihh in cartilage and SF samples were analyzed with immunohistochemistry (IHC), western blot, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Furthermore, we detected and compared Ihh protein levels in rat and mice cartilages between normal control and surgery-induced osteoarthritis (OA) group by IHC and fluorescence molecular tomography in vivo respectively. Ihh expression was increased 5.2-fold in OA cartilage, 3.1-fold in relative normal OA cartilage, and 1.71-fold in OA SF compared to normal control samples. The concentrations of Ihh in cartilage and SF samples was significantly increased in early-stage OA samples when compared to normal samples (r = 0.556; p < 0.001); however, there were no significant differences between normal samples and late-stage OA samples. Up-regulation of Ihh protein was also an early event in the surgery-induced OA models. Increased Ihh is associated with the severity of OA cartilage damage. Elevated Ihh content in human knee joint synovial fluid correlates with early cartilage lesions.
Keywords: Ihh; enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; early cartilage lesions Ihh; enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; early cartilage lesions
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhang, C.; Wei, X.; Chen, C.; Cao, K.; Li, Y.; Jiao, Q.; Ding, J.; Zhou, J.; Fleming, B.C.; Chen, Q.; Shang, X.; Wei, L. Indian Hedgehog in Synovial Fluid Is a Novel Marker for Early Cartilage Lesions in Human Knee Joint. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15, 7250-7265.

AMA Style

Zhang C, Wei X, Chen C, Cao K, Li Y, Jiao Q, Ding J, Zhou J, Fleming BC, Chen Q, Shang X, Wei L. Indian Hedgehog in Synovial Fluid Is a Novel Marker for Early Cartilage Lesions in Human Knee Joint. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2014; 15(5):7250-7265.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zhang, Congming; Wei, Xiaochun; Chen, Chongwei; Cao, Kun; Li, Yongping; Jiao, Qiang; Ding, Juan; Zhou, Jingming; Fleming, Braden C.; Chen, Qian; Shang, Xianwen; Wei, Lei. 2014. "Indian Hedgehog in Synovial Fluid Is a Novel Marker for Early Cartilage Lesions in Human Knee Joint." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 15, no. 5: 7250-7265.



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