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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(4), 6046-6061; doi:10.3390/ijms15046046
Article

PSMA, EpCAM, VEGF and GRPR as Imaging Targets in Locally Recurrent Prostate Cancer after Radiotherapy

1,†
, 1,†
, 1
, 2
, 3
 and 1,*
1 Department of Urology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, P.O. Box 30.001, Groningen 9700 RB NL, The Netherlands 2 Department of Urology, the Netherlands Cancer Institute, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Plesmanlaan 121, Amsterdam 1066 CX, The Netherlands 3 Department of Pathology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, P.O. Box 30.001, Groningen 9700 RB NL, The Netherlands These authors contributed equally to this work.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 January 2014 / Revised: 28 March 2014 / Accepted: 28 March 2014 / Published: 10 April 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Research in Urology 2014)
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Abstract

In this retrospective pilot study, the expression of the prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA), the epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM), the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and the gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) in locally recurrent prostate cancer after brachytherapy or external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) was investigated, and their adequacy for targeted imaging was analyzed. Prostate cancer specimens were collected of 17 patients who underwent salvage prostatectomy because of locally recurrent prostate cancer after brachytherapy or EBRT. Immunohistochemistry was performed. A pathologist scored the immunoreactivity in prostate cancer and stroma. Staining for PSMA was seen in 100% (17/17), EpCAM in 82.3% (14/17), VEGF in 82.3% (14/17) and GRPR in 100% (17/17) of prostate cancer specimens. Staining for PSMA, EpCAM and VEGF was seen in 0% (0/17) and for GRPR in 100% (17/17) of the specimens’ stromal compartments. In 11.8% (2/17) of cases, the GRPR staining intensity of prostate cancer was higher than stroma, while in 88.2% (15/17), the staining was equal. Based on the absence of stromal staining, PSMA, EpCAM and VEGF show high tumor distinctiveness. Therefore, PSMA, EpCAM and VEGF can be used as targets for the bioimaging of recurrent prostate cancer after EBRT to exclude metastatic disease and/or to plan local salvage therapy.
Keywords: prostate cancer; immunohistochemistry; PSMA; EpCAM; VEGF; GRPR prostate cancer; immunohistochemistry; PSMA; EpCAM; VEGF; GRPR
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Rybalov, M.; Ananias, H.J.K.; Hoving, H.D.; van der Poel, H.G.; Rosati, S.; de Jong, I.J. PSMA, EpCAM, VEGF and GRPR as Imaging Targets in Locally Recurrent Prostate Cancer after Radiotherapy. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15, 6046-6061.

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